The septum is a ventral forebrain structure known to regulate innate behaviors. During embryonic development, septal neurons are produced in multiple proliferative areas from neural progenitors following transcriptional programs that are still largely unknown. Here, we use a combination of single cell RNA sequencing, histology and genetic models to address how septal neuron diversity is established during neurogenesis. We find that the transcriptional profiles of septal progenitors change along neurogenesis, coinciding with the generation of distinct neuron types. We characterize the septal eminence, an anatomically distinct and transient proliferative zone composed of progenitors with distinctive molecular profiles, proliferative capacity and fate potential compared to the rostral septal progenitor zone. We show that Nkx2.1-expressing septal eminence progenitors give rise to neurons belonging to at least three morphological classes, born in temporal cohorts that are distributed across different septal nuclei in a sequential fountain-like pattern. Our study provides insight into the molecular programs that control the sequential production of different neuronal types in the septum, a structure with important roles in regulating mood and motivation.
Sequencing data have been deposited in GEO under accession code GSE184879
Data from: Transcriptional profiling of sequentially generated septal neuron fatesNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE184879.
- Corey C Harwell
- Corey C Harwell
- Miguel Turrero García
- Sarah K Stegmann
- Tiara E Lacey
- Christopher M Reid
- Corey C Harwell
- Corey C Harwell
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal procedures conducted in this study followed experimental protocols approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Harvard Medical School (IS961-3 and IS677-3).
- Joseph G Gleeson, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, United States
© 2021, Turrero García et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Gain-of-function mutations in the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 are the most frequently occurring mutations in sporadic juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and JMML-like myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) associated with Noonan syndrome (NS). Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are the disease propagating cells of JMML. Here, we explored transcriptomes of HSPCs with SHP2 mutations derived from JMML patients and a novel NS zebrafish model. In addition to major NS traits, CRISPR/Cas9 knock-in Shp2D61G mutant zebrafish recapitulated a JMML-like MPN phenotype, including myeloid lineage hyperproliferation, ex vivo growth of myeloid colonies, and in vivo transplantability of HSPCs. Single-cell mRNA sequencing of HSPCs from Shp2D61G zebrafish embryos and bulk sequencing of HSPCs from JMML patients revealed an overlapping inflammatory gene expression pattern. Strikingly, an anti-inflammatory agent rescued JMML-like MPN in Shp2D61G zebrafish embryos. Our results indicate that a common inflammatory response was triggered in the HSPCs from sporadic JMML patients and syndromic NS zebrafish, which potentiated MPN and may represent a future target for JMML therapies.
Zebrafish are an established research organism that has made many contributions to our understanding of vertebrate tissue and organ development, yet there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the genes that regulate gonad development, sex, and reproduction. Unlike the development of many organs, such as the brain and heart that form during the first few days of development, zebrafish gonads do not begin to form until the larval stage (≥5 dpf). Thus, forward genetic screens have identified very few genes required for gonad development. In addition, bulk RNA sequencing studies which identify genes expressed in the gonads do not have the resolution necessary to define minor cell populations that may play significant roles in development and function of these organs. To overcome these limitations, we have used single-cell RNA sequencing to determine the transcriptomes of cells isolated from juvenile zebrafish ovaries. This resulted in the profiles of 10,658 germ cells and 14,431 somatic cells. Our germ cell data represents all developmental stages from germline stem cells to early meiotic oocytes. Our somatic cell data represents all known somatic cell types, including follicle cells, theca cells and ovarian stromal cells. Further analysis revealed an unexpected number of cell subpopulations within these broadly defined cell types. To further define their functional significance, we determined the location of these cell subpopulations within the ovary. Finally, we used gene knockout experiments to determine the roles of foxl2l and wnt9b for oocyte development and sex determination and/or differentiation, respectively. Our results reveal novel insights into zebrafish ovarian development and function and the transcriptome profiles will provide a valuable resource for future studies.