(A, B) Example of patched and post hoc identified dentate granule cell in acute slices prepared from the dorsal hippocampus. Scale bar (upper panel)=500 µm; Scale bar (lower panel)=50 µm. (C) Sample traces of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) recorded from dentate granule cells of atRA (10 mg/kg; i.p.)-treated or vehicle-only (control) animals. (D, E) Group data of sEPSC recordings. A significant increase in the sEPSC frequency is observed (ncontrol=22 cells, natRA=25 cells in four animals; Mann-Whitney test, UsEPSC frequency=175). (F, G) Group data of sIPSC recordings (ncontrol=33 cells, natRA=28 cells in four animals; Mann-Whitney test). Individual data points are indicated by gray dots. Values represent mean ± SEM. (*, p<0.05; ns, non-significant difference). DG, dentate gyrus; gcl, granule cell layer; ml, molecular layer.