During organ development, tubular organs often form from flat epithelial primordia. In the placodes of the forming tubes of the salivary glands in the Drosophila embryo, we previously identified spatially defined cell behaviours of cell wedging, tilting and cell intercalation that are key to the initial stages of tube formation. Here we address what the requirements are that ensure the continuous formation of a narrow symmetrical tube from an initially asymmetrical primordium whilst overall tissue geometry is constantly changing. We are using live-imaging and quantitative methods to compare wild-type placodes and mutants that either show disrupted cell behaviours or an initial symmetrical placode organisation, with both resulting in severe impairment of the invagination. We find that early transcriptional patterning of key morphogenetic transcription factors drives the selective activation of downstream morphogenetic modules, such as GPCR signalling that activates apical-medial actomyosin activity to drive cell wedging at the future asymmetrically-placed invagination point. Over time, transcription of key factors expands across the rest of the placode and cells switch their behaviour from predominantly intercalating to predominantly apically constricting as their position approaches the invagination pit. Misplacement or enlargement of the initial invagination pit leads to early problems in cell behaviours that eventually result in a defective organ shape. Our work illustrates that the dynamic patterning of the expression of transcription factors and downstream morphogenetic effectors ensures positionally fixed areas of cell behaviour with regards to the invagination point. This patterning in combination with the asymmetric geometrical set-up ensures functional organ formation.
All data generated and analysed in the manuscript are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Yara Sanchez-Corrales
- Katja Röper
- Guy B Blanchard
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Danelle Devenport, Princeton University, United States
© 2021, Sanchez-Corrales et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Different organelles traveling through neurons exhibit distinct properties in vitro, but this has not been investigated in the intact mammalian brain. We established simultaneous dual color two-photon microscopy to visualize the trafficking of Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, LAMP1-, and RAB7-tagged organelles in thalamocortical axons imaged in mouse cortex in vivo. This revealed that LAMP1- and RAB7-tagged organelles move significantly faster than NPY-tagged organelles in both anterograde and retrograde direction. NPY traveled more selectively in anterograde direction than LAMP1 and RAB7. By using a synapse marker and a calcium sensor, we further investigated the transport dynamics of NPY-tagged organelles. We found that these organelles slow down and pause at synapses. In contrast to previous in vitro studies, a significant increase of transport speed was observed after spontaneous activity and elevated calcium levels in vivo as well as electrically stimulated activity in acute brain slices. Together, we show a remarkable diversity in speeds and properties of three axonal organelle marker in vivo that differ from properties previously observed in vitro.
Unbiased genetic screens implicated a number of uncharacterized genes in hearing loss, suggesting some biological processes required for auditory function remain unexplored. Loss of Kiaa1024L/Minar2, a previously understudied gene, caused deafness in mice, but how it functioned in the hearing was unclear. Here, we show that disruption of kiaa1024L/minar2 causes hearing loss in the zebrafish. Defects in mechanotransduction, longer and thinner hair bundles, and enlarged apical lysosomes in hair cells are observed in the kiaa1024L/minar2 mutant. In cultured cells, Kiaa1024L/Minar2 is mainly localized to lysosomes, and its overexpression recruits cholesterol and increases cholesterol labeling. Strikingly, cholesterol is highly enriched in the hair bundle membrane, and loss of kiaa1024L/minar2 reduces cholesterol localization to the hair bundles. Lowering cholesterol levels aggravates, while increasing cholesterol levels rescues the hair cell defects in the kiaa1024L/minar2 mutant. Therefore, cholesterol plays an essential role in hair bundles, and Kiaa1024L/Minar2 regulates cholesterol distribution and homeostasis to ensure normal hearing.