(A) Phylogenetic tree showing that, across Anura, there have been 11 independent evolutionary occurrences of direct development. Evidence suggests that the clade that includes Eleutherodactylidae, Craugastoridae, and Hemiphractidae is one of the oldest direct developing lineages, having evolved ~71–108 MYA (see Heinicke et al., 2009 and Gomez-Mestre et al., 2012 more details on the evolution of direct development). Other instances of direct development appear to have emerged more recently. (B) Phylogenetic tree showing that, across the family Eleutherodactylidae, there is variation in parental care strategies, including maternal, paternal, and amphisexual. E. coqui sits within a larger clade with mostly paternal egg care; additionally, male coquí care for froglets. E. coqui is one of two Eleutherodactylid species known to show paternal egg and juvenile care (Furness and Capellini, 2019). Currently, data is too sparse and varied to determine what specific parental care strategy was used by the ancestor of Eleutherodactylids; however, parental care is generally associated with direct development and a terrestrial life history (Gomez-Mestre et al., 2012; Vági et al., 2019). Phylogenetic clade relationships created from Pyron, 2014 time tree data. Direct development and behavior traits mapped on phylogenies with data from Furness and Capellini, 2019.