For many intracellular pathogens, the phagosome is the site of events and interactions that shape infection outcome. Phagosomal membrane damage, in particular, is proposed to benefit invading pathogens. To define the innate immune consequences of this damage, we profiled macrophage transcriptional responses to wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and mutants that fail to damage the phagosomal membrane. We identified a set of genes with enhanced expression in response to the mutants. These genes represented a late component of the TLR2-dependent transcriptional response to Mtb, distinct from an earlier component that included Tnf. Expression of the later component was inherent to TLR2 activation, dependent upon endosomal uptake, and enhanced by phagosome acidification. Canonical Mtb virulence factors that contribute to phagosomal membrane damage blunted phagosome acidification and undermined the endosome-specific response. Profiling cell survival and bacterial growth in macrophages demonstrated that the attenuation of these mutants is partially dependent upon TLR2. Further, TLR2 contributed to the attenuated phenotype of one of these mutants in a murine model of infection. These results demonstrate two distinct components of the TLR2 response and identify a component dependent upon endosomal uptake as a point where pathogenic bacteria interfere with the generation of effective inflammation. This interference promotes TB pathogenesis in both macrophage and murine infection models.
RNAseq data is accessible on the NCBI GEO website GSE144330.
RNAseq data for murine BMDM infected with wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a PDIM mutant, or an ESX-1 mutantNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE144330.
- Amy K Barczak
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in accordance with guidelines of the Massachusetts General Hospital Institutional Care and Use Committee, under the approved protocols 2014N000297 and 2014N000311.
- Christina L Stallings, Washington University School of Medicine, United States
© 2021, Hinman et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
CD4 T follicular helper cells (Tfh) are essential for establishing serological memory and have distinct helper attributes that impact both the quantity and quality of the antibody response. Insights into Tfh subsets that promote antibody persistence and functional capacity can critically inform vaccine design. Based on the Tfh profiles evoked by the live attenuated measles virus vaccine, renowned for its ability to establish durable humoral immunity, we investigated the potential of a Tfh1/17 recall response during the boost phase to enhance persistence of HIV-1 Envelope (Env) antibodies in rhesus macaques. Using a DNA-prime encoding gp160 antigen and Tfh polarizing cytokines (interferon protein-10 (IP-10) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)), followed by a gp140 protein boost formulated in a cationic liposome-based adjuvant (CAF01), we successfully generated germinal center (GC) Tfh1/17 cells. In contrast, a similar DNA-prime (including IP-10) followed by gp140 formulated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) +QS-21 adjuvant predominantly induced GC Tfh1 cells. While the generation of GC Tfh1/17 cells with CAF01 and GC Tfh1 cells with MPLA +QS-21 induced comparable peak Env antibodies, the latter group demonstrated significantly greater antibody concentrations at week 8 after final immunization which persisted up to 30 weeks (gp140 IgG ng/ml- MPLA; 5500; CAF01, 2155; p<0.05). Notably, interferon γ+Env-specific Tfh responses were consistently higher with gp140 in MPLA +QS-21 and positively correlated with Env antibody persistence. These findings suggest that vaccine platforms maximizing GC Tfh1 induction promote persistent Env antibodies, important for protective immunity against HIV.
Septic shock is characterized by an excessive inflammatory response depicted in a cytokine storm that results from invasive bacterial, fungi, protozoa, and viral infections. Non-canonical inflammasome activation is crucial in the development of septic shock promoting pyroptosis and proinflammatory cytokine production via caspase-11 and gasdermin D (GSDMD). Here, we show that NAD+ treatment protected mice toward bacterial and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock by blocking the non-canonical inflammasome specifically. NAD+ administration impeded systemic IL-1β and IL-18 production and GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis of macrophages via the IFN-β/STAT-1 signaling machinery. More importantly, NAD+ administration not only improved casp-11 KO (knockout) survival but rendered wild type (WT) mice completely resistant to septic shock via the IL-10 signaling pathway that was independent from the non-canonical inflammasome. Here, we delineated a two-sided effect of NAD+ blocking septic shock through a specific inhibition of the non-canonical inflammasome and promoting immune homeostasis via IL-10, underscoring its unique therapeutic potential.