Illustrated is the impact of legacy treatments (= “legacy effect”) and global change treatments ( = “global change effect”) on shoot and root biomass production as well as on plant traits (growth height (“Height”), shoot nitrogen concentration (“Nshoot”), leaf greenness (“Greenness”), leaf dry matter content (“LDMC”), specific leaf area (“SLA”), stomatal conductance (“gs”), mildew infestation (“Mildew”), root diameter (“Dia”), specific root length (“SRL”), root length density (“RLD”)) of the four study species. For legacy effects, schematic illustrations of plants indicate differences in shoot and/or root biomass, when originated from two-species ( = 2) or six-species ( = 6) communities ( = plant history (PH); green color), when grown in two-species (=2) or six-species ( = 6) community soil ( = soil history (SH), blue color), or when grown in away ( = a) or home ( = h) soil ( = soil treatment; as = away same soil; orange color). Arrows behind traits (for legacy effects) indicate, in which treatment group the value was significantly higher (arrow up) or lower (arrow down), e.g. “- SH: SLA ↑6” indicate that SLA in plants grown in six-species soil was higher than in two-species soil and “- LDMC ↑h” indicate that LDMC was higher in plants grown in home than in away soil. For global change effects, schematic illustrations of plants indicate whether shoot and/or root biomass of plants increased (big arrow up) or decreased (big arrow down) due to the impact of the respective global change driver (black horizontal line indicate no change). Small arrows behind traits (for global change effects) indicate and increase (arrow up) or decrease (arrow down) of the trait value due to the impact of the respective global change driver.