Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in vertebrates detect odorants using multiple cilia, which protrude from the end of the dendrite and require centrioles for their formation. In mouse olfactory epithelium, the centrioles originate in progenitor cells near the basal lamina, often 50 to 100 μm from the apical surface. It is unknown how centrioles traverse this distance or mature to form cilia. Using high-resolution expansion microscopy, we found that centrioles migrate together, with multiple centrioles per group and multiple groups per OSN, during dendrite outgrowth. Centrioles were found by live imaging to migrate slowly, with a maximum rate of 0.18 µm/min. Centrioles in migrating groups were associated with microtubule nucleation factors, but acquired rootletin and appendages only in mature OSNs. The parental centriole had preexisting appendages, formed a single cilium before other centrioles, and retained its unique appendage configuration in the mature OSN. We developed an air-liquid interface explant culture system for OSNs and used it to show that centriole migration can be perturbed ex vivo by stabilizing microtubules. We consider these results in the context of a comprehensive model for centriole formation, migration, and maturation in this important sensory cell type.
Figure 2 - Source Data 1, Figure 5 - Source Data 1, Figure 5 - Figure supplement 1 - Source Data 1, and Figure 5 - Figure supplement 1 - Source Data 2 contain the numerical data used to generate the figures
- Tim Stearns
- Tim Stearns
- Jennifer T Wang
- Kaitlin Ching
- Kaitlin Ching
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal procedures in this study were approved by the Stanford University Administrative Panel for Laboratory Animal Care (SUAPLAC protocol 11659) and carried out according to SUAPLAC guidelines.
- Danelle Devenport, Princeton University, United States
© 2022, Ching et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Inside prokaryotic cells, passive translational diffusion typically limits the rates with which cytoplasmic proteins can reach their locations. Diffusion is thus fundamental to most cellular processes, but the understanding of protein mobility in the highly crowded and non-homogeneous environment of a bacterial cell is still limited. Here we investigated the mobility of a large set of proteins in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, by employing fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) combined with simulations and theoretical modeling. We conclude that cytoplasmic protein mobility could be well described by Brownian diffusion in the confined geometry of the bacterial cell and at the high viscosity imposed by macromolecular crowding. We observed similar size dependence of protein diffusion for the majority of tested proteins, whether native or foreign to E. coli. For the faster-diffusing proteins, this size dependence is well consistent with the Stokes-Einstein relation once taking into account the specific dumbbell shape of protein fusions. Pronounced subdiffusion and hindered mobility are only observed for proteins with extensive interactions within the cytoplasm. Finally, while protein diffusion becomes markedly faster in actively growing cells, at high temperature, or upon treatment with rifampicin, and slower at high osmolarity, all of these perturbations affect proteins of different sizes in the same proportions, which could thus be described as changes of a well-defined cytoplasmic viscosity.
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