The cholesterol-dependent cytolysin perfringolysin O (PFO) is secreted by Clostridium perfringens as a bacterial virulence factor able to form giant ring-shaped pores that perforate and ultimately lyse mammalian cell membranes. To resolve the kinetics of all steps in the assembly pathway, we have used single-molecule fluorescence imaging to follow the dynamics of PFO on dye-loaded liposomes that lead to opening of a pore and release of the encapsulated dye. Formation of a long-lived membrane-bound PFO dimer nucleates the growth of an irreversible oligomer. The growing oligomer can insert into the membrane and open a pore at stoichiometries ranging from tetramers to full rings (~35-mers), whereby the rate of insertion increases linearly with the number of subunits. Oligomers that insert before the ring is complete continue to grow by monomer addition post insertion. Overall, our observations suggest that PFO membrane insertion is kinetically controlled.
The image analysis software is available at https://github.com/lilbutsa/JIM-Immobilized-Microscopy-Suite. Microscopy image stacks for Figure 1 and Figures 3-8; files containing single-molecule tracks extracted from all image stacks for Figure 2 (single-molecule binding); and a representative subset of image stacks recorded for Figure 2 are available on Dryad (doi: https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.8w9ghx3q4). The complete set of image stacks collected for Figure 2 is too large (>10 TB) to be included in this repository such that these data are stored on the UNSW data archive (data management plan number D0240569) and can be obtained for research (including commercial) by submitting a request to email@example.com.
Single-molecule analysis of the entire perfringolysin O pore formation pathwayDryad Digital Repository, doi:10.5061/dryad.8w9ghx3q4.
- Till Böcking
- Michelle A Dunstone
- Michael W Parker
- Michael W Parker
- Craig J Morton
- Michael W Parker
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Janice L Robertson, Washington University in St Louis, United States
© 2022, McGuinness et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Pancreatic a-cells secrete glucagon, an insulin counter-regulatory peptide hormone critical for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Investigation of the function of human a-cells remains a challenge due to the lack of cost-effective purification methods to isolate high-quality a-cells from islets. Here, we use the reaction-based probe diacetylated Zinpyr1 (DA-ZP1) to introduce a novel and simple method for enriching live a-cells from dissociated human islet cells with ~ 95% purity. The a-cells, confirmed by sorting and immunostaining for glucagon, were cultured up to 10 days to form a-pseudoislets. The a-pseudoislets could be maintained in culture without significant loss of viability, and responded to glucose challenge by secreting appropriate levels of glucagon. RNA-sequencing analyses (RNA-seq) revealed that expression levels of key a-cell identity genes were sustained in culture while some of the genes such as DLK1, GSN, SMIM24 were altered in a-pseudoislets in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, we report a method to sort human primary a-cells with high purity that can be used for downstream analyses such as functional and transcriptional studies.
Eukaryotic cells control inorganic phosphate to balance its role as essential macronutrient with its negative bioenergetic impact on reactions liberating phosphate. Phosphate homeostasis depends on the conserved INPHORS signaling pathway that utilizes inositol pyrophosphates and SPX receptor domains. Since cells synthesize various inositol pyrophosphates and SPX domains bind them promiscuously, it is unclear whether a specific inositol pyrophosphate regulates SPX domains in vivo, or whether multiple inositol pyrophosphates act as a pool. In contrast to previous models, which postulated that phosphate starvation is signaled by increased production of the inositol pyrophosphate 1-IP7, we now show that the levels of all detectable inositol pyrophosphates of yeast, 1-IP7, 5-IP7, and 1,5-IP8, strongly decline upon phosphate starvation. Among these, specifically the decline of 1,5-IP8 triggers the transcriptional phosphate starvation response, the PHO pathway. 1,5-IP8 inactivates the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Pho81 through its SPX domain. This stimulates the cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85-Pho80 to phosphorylate the transcription factor Pho4 and repress the PHO pathway. Combining our results with observations from other systems, we propose a unified model where 1,5-IP8 signals cytosolic phosphate abundance to SPX proteins in fungi, plants, and mammals. Its absence triggers starvation responses.