Mutations altering the scaffolding protein Shank are linked to several psychiatric disorders, and to synaptic and behavioral defects in mice. Among its many binding partners, Shank directly binds CaV1 voltage activated calcium channels. Here we show that the C. elegans SHN-1/Shank promotes CaV1 coupling to calcium activated potassium channels. Mutations inactivating SHN-1, and those preventing SHN-1 binding to EGL-19/CaV1 all increase action potential durations in body muscles. Action potential repolarization is mediated by two classes of potassium channels: SHK-1/KCNA and SLO-1 and SLO-2 BK channels. BK channels are calcium-dependent, and their activation requires tight coupling to EGL-19/CaV1 channels. SHN-1's effects on AP duration are mediated by changes in BK channels. In shn-1 mutants, SLO-2 currents and channel clustering are significantly decreased in both body muscles and neurons. Finally, increased and decreased shn-1 gene copy number produce similar changes in AP width and SLO-2 current. Collectively, these results suggest that an important function of Shank is to promote microdomain coupling of BK with CaV1.
All data generated or analyzed in this study are included in the manuscript.
- Joshua M Kaplan
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Graeme W Davis, University of California, San Francisco, United States
© 2022, Gao et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients’ brains contain collagens and are embedded extracellularly. Several collagens have been proposed to influence Aβ aggregate formation, yet their role in clearance is unknown. To investigate the potential role of collagens in forming and clearance of extracellular aggregates in vivo, we created a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain that expresses and secretes human Aβ1-42. This secreted Aβ forms aggregates in two distinct places within the extracellular matrix. In a screen for extracellular human Aβ aggregation regulators, we identified different collagens to ameliorate or potentiate Aβ aggregation. We show that a disintegrin and metalloprotease a disintegrin and metalloprotease 2 (ADM-2), an ortholog of ADAM9, reduces the load of extracellular Aβ aggregates. ADM-2 is required and sufficient to remove the extracellular Aβ aggregates. Thus, we provide in vivo evidence of collagens essential for aggregate formation and metalloprotease participating in extracellular Aβ aggregate removal.
The cerebellar granule cell layer has inspired numerous theoretical models of neural representations that support learned behaviors, beginning with the work of Marr and Albus. In these models, granule cells form a sparse, combinatorial encoding of diverse sensorimotor inputs. Such sparse representations are optimal for learning to discriminate random stimuli. However, recent observations of dense, low-dimensional activity across granule cells have called into question the role of sparse coding in these neurons. Here, we generalize theories of cerebellar learning to determine the optimal granule cell representation for tasks beyond random stimulus discrimination, including continuous input-output transformations as required for smooth motor control. We show that for such tasks, the optimal granule cell representation is substantially denser than predicted by classical theories. Our results provide a general theory of learning in cerebellum-like systems and suggest that optimal cerebellar representations are task-dependent.