Condensins compact chromosomes to promote their equal segregation during mitosis, but the mechanism of condensin engagement with and action on chromatin is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the general transcription factor TFIIH complex is continuously required to establish and maintain a compacted chromosome structure in transcriptionally silent Xenopus egg extracts. Inhibiting the DNA-dependent ATPase activity of the TFIIH complex subunit XPB rapidly and reversibly induces a complete loss of chromosome structure and prevents the enrichment of condensins I and II, but not topoisomerase II, on chromatin. In addition, inhibiting TFIIH prevents condensation of both mouse and Xenopus nuclei in Xenopus egg extracts, which suggests an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of TFIIH action. Reducing nucleosome density through partial histone depletion restores chromosome structure and condensin enrichment in the absence of TFIIH activity. We propose that the TFIIH complex promotes mitotic chromosome condensation by dynamically altering the chromatin environment to facilitate condensin loading and condensin-dependent loop extrusion.
The original files of the full raw unedited gels and blots and figures with the uncropped gels and blots with the relevant bands clearly labelled have been provided as Source Data files.
- Julian Haase
- Richard Chen
- Wesley M Parker
- Mary Kate Bonner
- Lisa M Jenkins
- Alexander E Kelly
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the care standards provided by the 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis, which were maintained and handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (NCI IACUC) protocol (LBMB-001-1) of the National Cancer Institute, which is an Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) accredited research facility.
- Silke Hauf, Virginia Tech, United States
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
Different organelles traveling through neurons exhibit distinct properties in vitro, but this has not been investigated in the intact mammalian brain. We established simultaneous dual color two-photon microscopy to visualize the trafficking of Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, LAMP1-, and RAB7-tagged organelles in thalamocortical axons imaged in mouse cortex in vivo. This revealed that LAMP1- and RAB7-tagged organelles move significantly faster than NPY-tagged organelles in both anterograde and retrograde direction. NPY traveled more selectively in anterograde direction than LAMP1 and RAB7. By using a synapse marker and a calcium sensor, we further investigated the transport dynamics of NPY-tagged organelles. We found that these organelles slow down and pause at synapses. In contrast to previous in vitro studies, a significant increase of transport speed was observed after spontaneous activity and elevated calcium levels in vivo as well as electrically stimulated activity in acute brain slices. Together, we show a remarkable diversity in speeds and properties of three axonal organelle marker in vivo that differ from properties previously observed in vitro.
Unbiased genetic screens implicated a number of uncharacterized genes in hearing loss, suggesting some biological processes required for auditory function remain unexplored. Loss of Kiaa1024L/Minar2, a previously understudied gene, caused deafness in mice, but how it functioned in the hearing was unclear. Here, we show that disruption of kiaa1024L/minar2 causes hearing loss in the zebrafish. Defects in mechanotransduction, longer and thinner hair bundles, and enlarged apical lysosomes in hair cells are observed in the kiaa1024L/minar2 mutant. In cultured cells, Kiaa1024L/Minar2 is mainly localized to lysosomes, and its overexpression recruits cholesterol and increases cholesterol labeling. Strikingly, cholesterol is highly enriched in the hair bundle membrane, and loss of kiaa1024L/minar2 reduces cholesterol localization to the hair bundles. Lowering cholesterol levels aggravates, while increasing cholesterol levels rescues the hair cell defects in the kiaa1024L/minar2 mutant. Therefore, cholesterol plays an essential role in hair bundles, and Kiaa1024L/Minar2 regulates cholesterol distribution and homeostasis to ensure normal hearing.