(a) PDF for aspect ratio, . Symbols are experimental data at three different times for MDCK cells, and lines represent the fits with our theory, Equation 3. The values of are quoted in Table 1. Inset: PDF of the rs, the lines are theory, and the symbols are data. (b) Using the values of , obtained for the three sets of data as quoted in Table 1, we obtain vs using our theory. Different symbols represent the types of the systems, and the colors blue, red, and black represent early, intermediate, and later time data, respectively. With maturation, the system moves towards lower and smaller . (c) PDF for rs for a wide variety of systems, shown in the figure, seems to be nearly universal, consistent with our theory. (d) The theory predicts a universal relation for vs . Symbols are data for different systems, and the line is our theoretical prediction. (e) PDF of the scaled area for different epithelial systems and the lines represent the fits with Equation 4. (f) Predictive power of the theory: we use the for the three sets of cells from Kim et al., 2020, as marked by the hexagrams in (d), and obtain the corresponding values of and obtain the PDFs for using Equation 3. The colors correspond to the type of cells in (d), and the continuous line corresponds to the lower data. Inset: Lines are the theoretical PDFs for rs using the values of α for different cells, and the symbols show the experimental data. We have collected the experimental and some of the simulation data from different papers. Data taken from other papers are marked with a blue superscript in the legends. The sources are as follows: (1) Atia et al., 2018, (2) Li et al., 2021, (3) Lin et al., 2018, (4) Kim et al., 2020, (5) Fujii et al., 2019, (6) Ilina et al., 2020, (7) Wilk et al., 2014 and (8) Puliafito, 2017.