Somatostatin is a peptide hormone that regulates endocrine systems by binding to G-protein-coupled somatostatin receptors. Somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) is a human somatostatin receptor and is highly implicated in hormone disorders, cancers and neurological diseases. Here, we report the high resolution cryo-EM structure of full-length human SSTR2 bound to the agonist somatostatin (SST-14) in complex with inhibitory G (Gi) proteins. Our structural and mutagenesis analyses show that seven transmembrane helices form a deep pocket for ligand binding and that SSTR2 recognizes the highly conserved Trp-Lys motif of SST-14 at the bottom of the pocket. Furthermore, our sequence analysis combined with AlphaFold modeled structures of other SSTR isoforms provide a structural basis for the mechanism by which SSTR family proteins specifically interact with their cognate ligands. This work provides the first glimpse into the molecular recognition mechanism of somatostatin receptors and a crucial resource to develop therapeutics targeting somatostatin receptors.
The cryo-EM map and the model are to be deposited at EMDB (www.ebi.ac.uk) and RCSB (www.rcsb.org) data base with the accession codes of EMD-32543 and 7WJ5, respectively.
- Ji-Joon Song
- Weontae Lee
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Andrew C Kruse, Harvard Medical School, United States
© 2022, Heo et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Genome and epigenome integrity in eukaryotes depends on the proper coupling of histone deposition with DNA synthesis. This process relies on the evolutionary conserved histone chaperone CAF-1 for which the links between structure and functions are still a puzzle. While studies of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAF-1 complex enabled to propose a model for the histone deposition mechanism, we still lack a framework to demonstrate its generality and in particular, how its interaction with the polymerase accessory factor PCNA is operating. Here, we reconstituted a complete SpCAF-1 from fission yeast. We characterized its dynamic structure using NMR, SAXS and molecular modeling together with in vitro and in vivo functional studies on rationally designed interaction mutants. Importantly, we identify the unfolded nature of the acidic domain which folds up when binding to histones. We also show how the long KER helix mediates DNA binding and stimulates SpCAF-1 association with PCNA. Our study highlights how the organization of CAF-1 comprising both disordered regions and folded modules enables the dynamics of multiple interactions to promote synthesis-coupled histone deposition essential for its DNA replication, heterochromatin maintenance, and genome stability functions.
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) play a critical role in chromatin regulation. It has been proposed that these PTMs form localized ‘codes’ that are read by specialized regions (reader domains) in chromatin-associated proteins (CAPs) to regulate downstream function. Substantial effort has been made to define [CAP: histone PTM] specificities, and thus decipher the histone code and guide epigenetic therapies. However, this has largely been done using the reductive approach of isolated reader domains and histone peptides, which cannot account for any higher-order factors. Here, we show that the [BPTF PHD finger and bromodomain: histone PTM] interaction is dependent on nucleosome context. The tandem reader selectively associates with nucleosomal H3K4me3 and H3K14ac or H3K18ac, a combinatorial engagement that despite being in cis is not predicted by peptides. This in vitro specificity of the BPTF tandem reader for PTM-defined nucleosomes is recapitulated in a cellular context. We propose that regulatable histone tail accessibility and its impact on the binding potential of reader domains necessitates we refine the ‘histone code’ concept and interrogate it at the nucleosome level.