(A) The beam deflects due to myotube contraction (Left). In this case, cantilever deflection is interrogated by a laser beam and detected using a photodetector (Right). Commonly, cantilever arrays are made of Silicon (Si) or PDMS. Different coatings (FN, laminin, collagen I) have been tested to improve cell attachment and longer culture times. (B) Human myotubes on silicon cantilevers in bright field, top view (top) and immunostained for Myosin Heavy chain, side view (above). Scale bar: 50 µm. (C) Representative images from healthy and DMD myotubes at baseline (i and iii) and peak stress (ii and iv). Blue rectangles represent film length. Red lines represent the tracking of the film edge. Yellow arrows represent the distance between the projected film length and the unstressed film length. The yellow horizontal lines represent the change in projected film length from baseline stress (top bar) to peak stress (bottom bar).
© 2014, Elsevier. Figure 3B is reprinted with permission from Figure 1 from Smith et al., 2014. It is not covered by the CC-BY 4.0 license and further reproduction of this panel would need permission from the copyright holder.
© 2016, Nesmith et al. Figure 3C is reprinted with permission from Figure 5B from Nesmith et al., 2016 (published under a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license). It is not covered by the CC-BY 4.0 license and further reproduction of this panel would need permission from the copyright holder.