The Membrane Attack Complex (MAC or C5b-9) is an important effector of the immune system to kill invading microbes. MAC formation is initiated when complement enzymes on the bacterial surface convert complement component C5 into C5b. Although the MAC is a membrane-inserted complex, soluble forms of MAC (sMAC, or terminal complement complex (TCC)) are often detected in sera of patients suffering from infections. Consequently, sMAC has been proposed as a biomarker, but it remains unclear when and how it is formed during infections. Here, we studied mechanisms of MAC formation on different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and found that sMAC is primarily formed in human serum by bacteria resistant to MAC-dependent killing. Surprisingly, C5 was converted into C5b more potently by MAC-resistant compared to MAC-sensitive Escherichia coli strains. In addition, we found that MAC precursors are released from the surface of MAC-resistant bacteria during MAC assembly. Although release of MAC precursors from bacteria induced lysis of bystander human erythrocytes, serum regulators vitronectin (Vn) and clusterin (Clu) can prevent this. Combining size exclusion chromatography with mass spectrometry profiling, we show that sMAC released from bacteria in serum is a heterogeneous mixture of complexes composed of C5b-8, up to 3 copies of C9 and multiple copies of Vn and Clu. Altogether, our data provide molecular insight into how sMAC is generated during bacterial infections. This fundamental knowledge could form the basis for exploring the use of sMAC as biomarker.
All relevant data supporting the findings of this manuscript have been added in the main manuscript and supplemental information. Supporting source data (for figures 1 - 6a and supplements) have been uploaded to Dryad Digital Repository (doi:10.5061/dryad.g4f4qrfsd). The MS data (in figure 6, figure 6 supplement and figure 7) have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange partner MassIVE database and assigned the identifier MSV000088560 (doi:10.25345/C5QW00).
Source data for: Soluble MAC is primarily released from MAC-resistant bacteria that potently convert complement component C5Dryad Digital Repository, doi:10.5061/dryad.g4f4qrfsd.
Bottom-up MS of soluble MAC released from bacteriadoi:10.25345/C5QW00.
- Suzan HM Rooijakkers
- Suzan HM Rooijakkers
- Suzan HM Rooijakkers
- Albert JR Heck
- Marie V Lukassen
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Jameel Iqbal, DaVita Labs, United States
© 2022, Doorduijn et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The combined impact of immunity and SARS-CoV-2 variants on viral kinetics during infections has been unclear.
We characterized 1,280 infections from the National Basketball Association occupational health cohort identified between June 2020 and January 2022 using serial RT-qPCR testing. Logistic regression and semi-mechanistic viral RNA kinetics models were used to quantify the effect of age, variant, symptom status, infection history, vaccination status and antibody titer to the founder SARS-CoV-2 strain on the duration of potential infectiousness and overall viral kinetics. The frequency of viral rebounds was quantified under multiple cycle threshold (Ct) value-based definitions.
Among individuals detected partway through their infection, 51.0% (95% credible interval [CrI]: 48.3–53.6%) remained potentially infectious (Ct <30) 5 days post detection, with small differences across variants and vaccination status. Only seven viral rebounds (0.7%; N=999) were observed, with rebound defined as 3+days with Ct <30 following an initial clearance of 3+days with Ct ≥30. High antibody titers against the founder SARS-CoV-2 strain predicted lower peak viral loads and shorter durations of infection. Among Omicron BA.1 infections, boosted individuals had lower pre-booster antibody titers and longer clearance times than non-boosted individuals.
SARS-CoV-2 viral kinetics are partly determined by immunity and variant but dominated by individual-level variation. Since booster vaccination protects against infection, longer clearance times for BA.1-infected, boosted individuals may reflect a less effective immune response, more common in older individuals, that increases infection risk and reduces viral RNA clearance rate. The shifting landscape of viral kinetics underscores the need for continued monitoring to optimize isolation policies and to contextualize the health impacts of therapeutics and vaccines.
Supported in part by CDC contract #200-2016-91779, a sponsored research agreement to Yale University from the National Basketball Association contract #21-003529, and the National Basketball Players Association.
Phage immunoprecipitation sequencing (PhIP-seq) allows for unbiased, proteome-wide autoantibody discovery across a variety of disease settings, with identification of disease-specific autoantigens providing new insight into previously poorly understood forms of immune dysregulation. Despite several successful implementations of PhIP-seq for autoantigen discovery, including our previous work (Vazquez et al., 2020), current protocols are inherently difficult to scale to accommodate large cohorts of cases and importantly, healthy controls. Here, we develop and validate a high throughput extension of PhIP-seq in various etiologies of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including APS1, IPEX, RAG1/2 deficiency, Kawasaki disease (KD), multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), and finally, mild and severe forms of COVID-19. We demonstrate that these scaled datasets enable machine-learning approaches that result in robust prediction of disease status, as well as the ability to detect both known and novel autoantigens, such as prodynorphin (PDYN) in APS1 patients, and intestinally expressed proteins BEST4 and BTNL8 in IPEX patients. Remarkably, BEST4 antibodies were also found in two patients with RAG1/2 deficiency, one of whom had very early onset IBD. Scaled PhIP-seq examination of both MIS-C and KD demonstrated rare, overlapping antigens, including CGNL1, as well as several strongly enriched putative pneumonia-associated antigens in severe COVID-19, including the endosomal protein EEA1. Together, scaled PhIP-seq provides a valuable tool for broadly assessing both rare and common autoantigen overlap between autoimmune diseases of varying origins and etiologies.