(A) Local multivoxel activation patterns (identified by searchlight analysis) in the insula and dmPFC were distinguishable between distal and imminent threats, irrespective of helping decisions. (B) Local multivoxel activation patterns (identified by support vector regression) in the amygdala, insula, OFC/IFG, vmPFC, and ACC were linearly associated with varying threat level. (C) Local multivoxel activation patterns (identified by searchlight) in the insula, IFG, hippocampus, and ACC were distinguishable when making helping decisions under distal and imminent threat. (D) Clusters in the insula, IFG, OFC, and ACC displayed a significant threat imminence*threat level interaction. (E) Clusters in the insula, ACC, IFG/OFC, vmPFC, hippocampus, and PAG displayed a significant type of decision*threat imminence interaction. ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; AMY, amygdala; dmPFC, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex; Hipp, hippocampus; IFG, inferior frontal gyrus; Ins, insula; OFC, orbitofrontal cortex; PAG, periaqueductal gray; vmPFC, ventromedial prefrontal cortex. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.