mRNA expression of key regulatory genes related to metabolite detoxication (A), intertissue metabolism (B), fatty acid metabolism (C), glucose metabolism (D), tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, NAD metabolism (F), and the electron transport chain (G) in mice, rats, monkeys, humans, and cattle. Bars denote expression levels by an organism, following the same order shown in the cartoon of organisms. Expression was normalized to counts per million and was then further normalized for sequencing depth and transcript length. All genes met an adjusted p-value threshold of 0.01 using a one-way ANOVA with the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. All samples were obtained from males (n=2 replicates per species). ALDH7A1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 family member A1; GPX1, glutathione peroxidase 1; GLUL, glutamate-ammonia ligase; GPT, glutamic-pyruvate transaminase; ADIPOR1, adiponectin receptor-1; LIPE, hormone-sensitive lipase E; PANK1, pantothenate kinase 1; ACACA, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha; ELOVL2, Elongation of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids-Like 2; SORD, sorbitol dehydrogenase; PGK1, phosphoglycerate kinase 1; DLST, dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase; TDO2, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase; MDH1, malate dehydrogenase 1; NDUFA9, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit A9; COX8A, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 8 A.