The ability to proliferate is a common feature of most T-cell populations. However, proliferation follows different cell-cycle dynamics and is coupled to different functional outcomes according to T-cell subsets. Whether the mitotic machineries supporting these qualitatively distinct proliferative responses are identical remains unknown. Here, we show that disruption of the microtubule-associated protein LIS1 in mouse models leads to proliferative defects associated with a blockade of T-cell development after b-selection and of peripheral CD4+ T cell expansion after antigen priming. In contrast, cell divisions in CD8+ T cells occurred independently of LIS1 following T-cell antigen receptor stimulation, although LIS1 was required for proliferation elicited by pharmacological activation. In thymocytes and CD4+ T cells, LIS1-deficiency did not affect signaling events leading to activation but led to an interruption of proliferation after the initial round of division and to p53-induced cell death. Proliferative defects resulted from a mitotic failure, characterized by the presence of extra-centrosomes and the formation of multipolar spindles, causing abnormal chromosomes congression during metaphase and separation during telophase. LIS1 was required to stabilize dynein/dynactin complexes, which promote chromosome attachment to mitotic spindles and ensure centrosome integrity. Together, these results suggest that proliferative responses are supported by distinct mitotic machineries across T-cell subsets.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting file have been provided for Figures 1 and 3.
- Jérémy Argenty
- Suzanne Mélique
- Renaud Lesourne
- Renaud Lesourne
- Renaud Lesourne
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All the experiments were conducted at the INSERM animal facility (US-006; accreditation number A-31 55508 delivered by the French Ministry of Agriculture to perform experiments on live mice). All experimental protocols were approved by a Ministry-approved ethics committee (CEEA-122) and follow the French and European regulations on care and protection of the Laboratory Animals (EC Directive 2010/63).
- Sarah Russell, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Australia
© 2022, Argenty et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Cylicins are testis-specific proteins, which are exclusively expressed during spermiogenesis. In mice and humans, two Cylicins, the gonosomal X-linked Cylicin 1 (Cylc1/CYLC1) and the autosomal Cylicin 2 (Cylc2/CYLC2) genes, have been identified. Cylicins are cytoskeletal proteins with an overall positive charge due to lysine-rich repeats. While Cylicins have been localized in the acrosomal region of round spermatids, they resemble a major component of the calyx within the perinuclear theca at the posterior part of mature sperm nuclei. However, the role of Cylicins during spermiogenesis has not yet been investigated. Here, we applied CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in zygotes to establish Cylc1- and Cylc2-deficient mouse lines as a model to study the function of these proteins. Cylc1 deficiency resulted in male subfertility, whereas Cylc2-/-, Cylc1-/yCylc2+/-, and Cylc1-/yCylc2-/- males were infertile. Phenotypical characterization revealed that loss of Cylicins prevents proper calyx assembly during spermiogenesis. This results in decreased epididymal sperm counts, impaired shedding of excess cytoplasm, and severe structural malformations, ultimately resulting in impaired sperm motility. Furthermore, exome sequencing identified an infertile man with a hemizygous variant in CYLC1 and a heterozygous variant in CYLC2, displaying morphological abnormalities of the sperm including the absence of the acrosome. Thus, our study highlights the relevance and importance of Cylicins for spermiogenic remodeling and male fertility in human and mouse, and provides the basis for further studies on unraveling the complex molecular interactions between perinuclear theca proteins required during spermiogenesis.
Previously we showed that 2D template matching (2DTM) can be used to localize macromolecular complexes in images recorded by cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) with high precision, even in the presence of noise and cellular background (Lucas et al., 2021; Lucas et al., 2022). Here, we show that once localized, these particles may be averaged together to generate high-resolution 3D reconstructions. However, regions included in the template may suffer from template bias, leading to inflated resolution estimates and making the interpretation of high-resolution features unreliable. We evaluate conditions that minimize template bias while retaining the benefits of high-precision localization, and we show that molecular features not present in the template can be reconstructed at high resolution from targets found by 2DTM, extending prior work at low-resolution. Moreover, we present a quantitative metric for template bias to aid the interpretation of 3D reconstructions calculated with particles localized using high-resolution templates and fine angular sampling.