Adult (3 month) mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of adenylyl cyclase (AC) type VIII (TGAC8) adapt to an increased cAMP-induced cardiac workload (~30% increases in heart rate, ejection fraction and cardiac output) for up to a year without signs of heart failure or excessive mortality. Here, we show classical cardiac hypertrophy markers were absent in TGAC8, and that total left ventricular (LV) mass was not increased: a reduced LV cavity volume in TGAC8 was encased by thicker LV walls harboring an increased number of small cardiac myocytes, and a network of small interstitial proliferative non-cardiac myocytes compared to wild type (WT) littermates; Protein synthesis, proteosome activity, and autophagy were enhanced in TGAC8 vs WT, and Nrf-2, Hsp90α, and ACC2 protein levels were increased. Despite increased energy demands in vivo LV ATP and phosphocreatine levels in TGAC8 did not differ from WT. Unbiased omics analyses identified more than 2,000 transcripts and proteins, comprising a broad array of biological processes across multiple cellular compartments, which differed by genotype; compared to WT, in TGAC8 there was a shift from fatty acid oxidation to aerobic glycolysis in the context of increased utilization of the pentose phosphate shunt and nucleotide synthesis. Thus, marked overexpression of AC8 engages complex, coordinate adaptation 'circuity' that has evolved in mammalian cells to defend against stress that threatens health or life (elements of which have already been shown to be central to cardiac ischemic pre-conditioning and exercise endurance cardiac conditioning) that may be of biological significance to allow for proper healing in disease states such as infarction or failure of the heart.
RNASEQ raw data have been deposited in GEO under accession code GSE205234Proteome raw data submitted to MassIVE MSV000089554
RNA-Seq Analyses of TGAC8 and WT mouse Left VentriclesNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE205234.
Proteome Analyses of TGAC8 and WT mouse Left VentriclesMSV000089554.
- Loren Field
- Nazareno Paolocci
- Robert Weiss
- Mark Ranek
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All studies were performed in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH Publication no. 85-23, revised 1996). The experimental protocols were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the National Institutes of Health (protocol #441-LCS-2019)
- Kalyanam Shivkumar, UCLA Health, United States
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
Reverse genetics is key to understanding protein function, but the mechanistic connection between a gene of interest and the observed phenotype is not always clear. Here we describe the use of proximity labeling using TurboID and site-specific quantification of biotinylated peptides to measure changes to the local protein environment of selected targets upon perturbation. We apply this technique, which we call PerTurboID, to understand how the P. falciparum exported kinase, FIKK4.1, regulates the function of the major virulence factor of the malaria causing parasite, PfEMP1. We generated independent TurboID fusions of 2 proteins that are predicted substrates of FIKK4.1 in a FIKK4.1 conditional KO parasite line. Comparing the abundance of site-specific biotinylated peptides between wildtype and kinase deletion lines reveals the differential accessibility of proteins to biotinylation, indicating changes to localization, protein-protein interactions, or protein structure which are mediated by FIKK4.1 activity. We further show that FIKK4.1 is likely the only FIKK kinase that controls surface levels of PfEMP1, but not other surface antigens, on the infected red blood cell under standard culture conditions. We believe PerTurboID is broadly applicable to study the impact of genetic or environmental perturbation on a selected cellular niche.
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