A fundamental unresolved problem in neuroscience is how the brain associates in memory events that are separated in time. Here we propose that reactivation-induced synaptic plasticity can solve this problem. Previously, we reported that the reinforcement signal dopamine converts hippocampal spike timing-dependent depression into potentiation during continued synaptic activity (Brzosko et al., 2015). Here, we report that postsynaptic bursts in the presence of dopamine produce input-specific LTP in mouse hippocampal synapses 10 minutes after they were primed with coincident pre- and postsynaptic activity (post-before-pre pairing; Δt = -20 ms). This priming activity induces synaptic depression and sets an NMDA receptor-dependent silent eligibility trace which, through the cAMP-PKA cascade, is rapidly converted into protein synthesis-dependent synaptic potentiation, mediated by a signaling pathway distinct from that of conventional LTP. This synaptic learning rule was incorporated into a computational model, and we found that it adds specificity to reinforcement learning by controlling memory allocation and enabling both ‘instructive’ and 'supervised' reinforcement learning. We predicted that this mechanism would make reactivated neurons activate more strongly and carry more spatial information than non-reactivated cells, which was confirmed in freely moving mice performing a reward-based navigation task.
Data availabilityExperimental data and code are available at:Code for computational model and code for in vivo analysis (including a link to in vivo data) are available at: https://github.com/przemyslawj/dCA1-reactivations. Data of plasticity experiments and of simulation data from computational model are available at: https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/dx7cdgpcz3/1.
- Tanja Fuchsberger
- Zuzanna Brzosko
- Ole Paulsen
- Tanja Fuchsberger
- Claudia Clopath
- Ole Paulsen
- Przemyslaw Jarzebowski
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: Experimental procedures and animal use were performed in accordance with UK Home Office regulations of the UK Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 and Amendment Regulations 2012, following ethical review by the University of Cambridge Animal Welfare and Ethical Review Body (AWERB). All animal procedures were authorized under Personal and Project licences held by the authors.
- Marco Capogna, University of Aarhus, Denmark
© 2022, Fuchsberger et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Cochlear sound encoding depends on α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs), but reliance on specific pore-forming subunits is unknown. With 5-week-old male C57BL/6J Gria3-knockout mice (i.e., subunit GluA3KO) we determined cochlear function, synapse ultrastructure, and AMPAR molecular anatomy at ribbon synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs) and spiral ganglion neurons. GluA3KO and wild-type (GluA3WT) mice reared in ambient sound pressure level (SPL) of 55–75 dB had similar auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds, wave-1 amplitudes, and latencies. Postsynaptic densities (PSDs), presynaptic ribbons, and synaptic vesicle sizes were all larger on the modiolar side of the IHCs from GluA3WT, but not GluA3KO, demonstrating GluA3 is required for modiolar–pillar synapse differentiation. Presynaptic ribbons juxtaposed with postsynaptic GluA2/4 subunits were similar in quantity, however, lone ribbons were more frequent in GluA3KO and GluA2-lacking synapses were observed only in GluA3KO. GluA2 and GluA4 immunofluorescence volumes were smaller on the pillar side than the modiolar side in GluA3KO, despite increased pillar-side PSD size. Overall, the fluorescent puncta volumes of GluA2 and GluA4 were smaller in GluA3KO than GluA3WT. However, GluA3KO contained less GluA2 and greater GluA4 immunofluorescence intensity relative to GluA3WT (threefold greater mean GluA4:GluA2 ratio). Thus, GluA3 is essential in development, as germline disruption of Gria3 caused anatomical synapse pathology before cochlear output became symptomatic by ABR. We propose the hearing loss in older male GluA3KO mice results from progressive synaptopathy evident in 5-week-old mice as decreased abundance of GluA2 subunits and an increase in GluA2-lacking, GluA4-monomeric Ca2+-permeable AMPARs.
Relief of ongoing pain is a potent motivator of behavior, directing actions to escape from or reduce potentially harmful stimuli. Whereas endogenous modulation of pain events is well characterized, relatively little is known about the modulation of pain relief and its corresponding neurochemical basis. Here we studied pain modulation during a probabilistic relief-seeking task (a 'wheel of fortune' gambling task), in which people actively or passively received reduction of a tonic thermal pain stimulus. We found that relief perception was enhanced by active decisions and unpredictability, and greater in high novelty-seeking trait individuals, consistent with a model in which relief is tuned by its informational content. We then probed the roles of dopaminergic and opioidergic signaling, both of which are implicated in relief processing, by embedding the task in a double-blinded cross-over design with administration of the dopamine precursor levodopa and the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone. We found that levodopa enhanced each of these information-specific aspects of relief modulation but no significant effects of the opioidergic manipulation. These results show that dopaminergic signaling has a key role in modulating the perception of pain relief to optimize motivation and behavior.