A fundamental unresolved problem in neuroscience is how the brain associates in memory events that are separated in time. Here we propose that reactivation-induced synaptic plasticity can solve this problem. Previously, we reported that the reinforcement signal dopamine converts hippocampal spike timing-dependent depression into potentiation during continued synaptic activity (Brzosko et al., 2015). Here, we report that postsynaptic bursts in the presence of dopamine produce input-specific LTP in mouse hippocampal synapses 10 minutes after they were primed with coincident pre- and postsynaptic activity (post-before-pre pairing; Δt = -20 ms). This priming activity induces synaptic depression and sets an NMDA receptor-dependent silent eligibility trace which, through the cAMP-PKA cascade, is rapidly converted into protein synthesis-dependent synaptic potentiation, mediated by a signaling pathway distinct from that of conventional LTP. This synaptic learning rule was incorporated into a computational model, and we found that it adds specificity to reinforcement learning by controlling memory allocation and enabling both ‘instructive’ and 'supervised' reinforcement learning. We predicted that this mechanism would make reactivated neurons activate more strongly and carry more spatial information than non-reactivated cells, which was confirmed in freely moving mice performing a reward-based navigation task.
Data availabilityExperimental data and code are available at:Code for computational model and code for in vivo analysis (including a link to in vivo data) are available at: https://github.com/przemyslawj/dCA1-reactivations. Data of plasticity experiments and of simulation data from computational model are available at: https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/dx7cdgpcz3/1.
- Tanja Fuchsberger
- Zuzanna Brzosko
- Ole Paulsen
- Tanja Fuchsberger
- Claudia Clopath
- Ole Paulsen
- Przemyslaw Jarzebowski
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: Experimental procedures and animal use were performed in accordance with UK Home Office regulations of the UK Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 and Amendment Regulations 2012, following ethical review by the University of Cambridge Animal Welfare and Ethical Review Body (AWERB). All animal procedures were authorized under Personal and Project licences held by the authors.
- Marco Capogna, University of Aarhus, Denmark
© 2022, Fuchsberger et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). A hallmark of ALS/FTD pathology is the presence of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins, produced from both sense GGGGCC (poly-GA, poly-GP, poly-GR) and antisense CCCCGG (poly-PR, poly-PG, poly-PA) transcripts. Translation of sense DPRs, such as poly-GA and poly-GR, depends on non-canonical (non-AUG) initiation codons. Here, we provide evidence for canonical AUG-dependent translation of two antisense DPRs, poly-PR and poly-PG. A single AUG is required for synthesis of poly-PR, one of the most toxic DPRs. Unexpectedly, we found redundancy between three AUG codons necessary for poly-PG translation. Further, the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2D (EIF2D), which was previously implicated in sense DPR synthesis, is not required for AUG-dependent poly-PR or poly-PG translation, suggesting that distinct translation initiation factors control DPR synthesis from sense and antisense transcripts. Our findings on DPR synthesis from the C9ORF72 locus may be broadly applicable to many other nucleotide repeat expansion disorders.
The amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients’ brains contain collagens and are embedded extracellularly. Several collagens have been proposed to influence Aβ aggregate formation, yet their role in clearance is unknown. To investigate the potential role of collagens in forming and clearance of extracellular aggregates in vivo, we created a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain that expresses and secretes human Aβ1-42. This secreted Aβ forms aggregates in two distinct places within the extracellular matrix. In a screen for extracellular human Aβ aggregation regulators, we identified different collagens to ameliorate or potentiate Aβ aggregation. We show that a disintegrin and metalloprotease a disintegrin and metalloprotease 2 (ADM-2), an ortholog of ADAM9, reduces the load of extracellular Aβ aggregates. ADM-2 is required and sufficient to remove the extracellular Aβ aggregates. Thus, we provide in vivo evidence of collagens essential for aggregate formation and metalloprotease participating in extracellular Aβ aggregate removal.