(A) Schematic of the stimulating surface, which includes five repetitions of four oriented line stimuli. The small dots above the line stimuli are used during the experiment to align the stimulating surface with an isolated neuron’s receptive field (RF). The layout of the line stimuli is such that an isolated RF is only stimulated by a single line stimulus at any given moment in time. (B) Tick marks represent action potentials from an exemplar neuron plotted relative to the position of the stimulating surface. All three rotations (#1, #2, and #3) are shown. The superimposed traces below represent the firing rate profile, defined as the reciprocal of the interval between subsequent action potentials, for each of the three rotations. This constitutes the raw data for this study. (C) Response from an exemplar neuron for the four line orientations and three stimulating speeds. The black trace represents the mean response, and the light gray traces show responses for the 15 individual trials. Tick marks below represent action potentials for each individual trial. Scale bars show time (100 ms). (D) Same data as in C but represented in spatial coordinates. Scale bars show distance traversed by the drum (2 mm). (E) Each trace shows an exemplar spike train smoothed by Gaussian kernels of various widths (noted is the SD of the kernel).