C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) elicit immune responses upon recognition of glycoconjugates present on pathogens and self-components. While Dectin-1 is the best-characterized CLR recognizing b-glucan on pathogens, the endogenous targets of Dectin-1 are not fully understood. Herein, we report that human Dectin-1 is a ligand for CLEC-2, another CLR expressed on platelets. Biochemical analyses revealed that Dectin-1 is a mucin-like protein as its stalk region is highly O-glycosylated. A sialylated core 1 glycan attached to the EDxxT motif of human Dectin-1, which is absent in mouse Dectin-1, provides a ligand moiety for CLEC-2. Strikingly, the expression of human Dectin-1 in mice rescued the lethality and lymphatic defect resulting from a deficiency of Podoplanin, a known CLEC-2 ligand. This finding is the first example of an innate immune receptor also functioning as a physiological ligand to regulate ontogeny upon glycosylation.
Sequencing data have been deposited in GEO under accession code GSE196049.
RNA sequencing of human monocytes stimulated with murine platelets from wild-type or Clec1b-/- miceNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE196049.
- Sho Yamasaki
- Masamichi Nagae
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal protocols were approved by the committee of Ethics on Animal Experiment and Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University (Permit number: Biken-AP-R03-17-0).
Human subjects: All human subjects research was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University. Informed consent and consent to publish were obtained from all individuals donating venous blood. Consent documents and procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University (Permit number 29-12).
- Simon Yona, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
© 2022, Haji et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Age-associated DNA methylation in blood cells convey information on health status. However, the mechanisms that drive these changes in circulating cells and their relationships to gene regulation are unknown. We identified age-associated DNA methylation sites in six purified blood-borne immune cell types (naive B, naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, granulocytes, monocytes, and NK cells) collected from healthy individuals interspersed over a wide age range. Of the thousands of age-associated sites, only 350 sites were differentially methylated in the same direction in all cell types and validated in an independent longitudinal cohort. Genes close to age-associated hypomethylated sites were enriched for collagen biosynthesis and complement cascade pathways, while genes close to hypermethylated sites mapped to neuronal pathways. In silico analyses showed that in most cell types, the age-associated hypo- and hypermethylated sites were enriched for ARNT (HIF1β) and REST transcription factor (TF) motifs, respectively, which are both master regulators of hypoxia response. To conclude, despite spatial heterogeneity, there is a commonality in the putative regulatory role with respect to TF motifs and histone modifications at and around these sites. These features suggest that DNA methylation changes in healthy aging may be adaptive responses to fluctuations of oxygen availability.
Infection with Influenza A virus (IAV) causes the well-known symptoms of the flu, including fever, loss of appetite, and excessive sleepiness. These responses, mediated by the brain, will normally disappear once the virus is cleared from the system, but a severe respiratory virus infection may cause long-lasting neurological disturbances. These include encephalitis lethargica and narcolepsy. The mechanisms behind such long lasting changes are unknown. The hypothalamus is a central regulator of the homeostatic response during a viral challenge. To gain insight into the neuronal and non-neuronal molecular changes during an IAV infection, we intranasally infected mice with an H1N1 virus and extracted the brain at different time points. Using single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) of the hypothalamus, we identify transcriptional effects in all identified cell populations. The snRNA-seq data showed the most pronounced transcriptional response at 3 days past infection, with a strong downregulation of genes across all cell types. General immune processes were mainly impacted in microglia, the brain resident immune cells, where we found increased numbers of cells expressing pro-inflammatory gene networks. In addition, we found that most neuronal cell populations downregulated genes contributing to the energy homeostasis in mitochondria and protein translation in the cytosol, indicating potential reduced cellular and neuronal activity. This might be a preventive mechanism in neuronal cells to avoid intracellular viral replication and attack by phagocytosing cells. The change of microglia gene activity suggest that this is complemented by a shift in microglia activity to provide increased surveillance of their surroundings.