Neurons form dense neural circuits by connecting to each other via synapses and exchange information through synaptic receptors to sustain brain activities. Excitatory postsynapses form and mature on spines composed predominantly of actin, while inhibitory synapses are formed directly on the shafts of dendrites where both actin and microtubules (MTs) are present. Thus, it is the accumulation of specific proteins that characterizes inhibitory synapses. In this study, we explored the mechanisms that enable efficient protein accumulation at inhibitory postsynapse. We found that some inhibitory synapses function to recruit the plus end of MTs. One of the synaptic organizers, Teneurin-2 (TEN2), tends to localize to such MT-rich synapses and recruits MTs to inhibitory postsynapses via interaction with MT plus-end tracking proteins EBs. This recruitment mechanism provides a platform for the exocytosis of GABAA receptors. These regulatory mechanisms could lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of disorders such as schizophrenia and autism, which are caused by excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) imbalances during synaptogenesis.
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- Hirohide Iwasaki
- Hirohide Iwasaki
- Hirohide Iwasaki
- Sotaro Ichinose
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: The experiments in this study have passed a rigorous ethical review and have been approved by Gunma University for animal experiments (approval number: 20-061) .
- Kassandra M Ori-McKenney, University of California, United States
© 2023, Ichinose et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Cylicins are testis-specific proteins, which are exclusively expressed during spermiogenesis. In mice and humans, two Cylicins, the gonosomal X-linked Cylicin 1 (Cylc1/CYLC1) and the autosomal Cylicin 2 (Cylc2/CYLC2) genes, have been identified. Cylicins are cytoskeletal proteins with an overall positive charge due to lysine-rich repeats. While Cylicins have been localized in the acrosomal region of round spermatids, they resemble a major component of the calyx within the perinuclear theca at the posterior part of mature sperm nuclei. However, the role of Cylicins during spermiogenesis has not yet been investigated. Here, we applied CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in zygotes to establish Cylc1- and Cylc2-deficient mouse lines as a model to study the function of these proteins. Cylc1 deficiency resulted in male subfertility, whereas Cylc2-/-, Cylc1-/yCylc2+/-, and Cylc1-/yCylc2-/- males were infertile. Phenotypical characterization revealed that loss of Cylicins prevents proper calyx assembly during spermiogenesis. This results in decreased epididymal sperm counts, impaired shedding of excess cytoplasm, and severe structural malformations, ultimately resulting in impaired sperm motility. Furthermore, exome sequencing identified an infertile man with a hemizygous variant in CYLC1 and a heterozygous variant in CYLC2, displaying morphological abnormalities of the sperm including the absence of the acrosome. Thus, our study highlights the relevance and importance of Cylicins for spermiogenic remodeling and male fertility in human and mouse, and provides the basis for further studies on unraveling the complex molecular interactions between perinuclear theca proteins required during spermiogenesis.
Previously we showed that 2D template matching (2DTM) can be used to localize macromolecular complexes in images recorded by cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) with high precision, even in the presence of noise and cellular background (Lucas et al., 2021; Lucas et al., 2022). Here, we show that once localized, these particles may be averaged together to generate high-resolution 3D reconstructions. However, regions included in the template may suffer from template bias, leading to inflated resolution estimates and making the interpretation of high-resolution features unreliable. We evaluate conditions that minimize template bias while retaining the benefits of high-precision localization, and we show that molecular features not present in the template can be reconstructed at high resolution from targets found by 2DTM, extending prior work at low-resolution. Moreover, we present a quantitative metric for template bias to aid the interpretation of 3D reconstructions calculated with particles localized using high-resolution templates and fine angular sampling.