Many bacterial genomes carry prophages whose induction can eliminate competitors. In response, bacteria may become resistant by modifying surface receptors, by lysogenization, or by other poorly known processes. All these mechanisms affect bacterial fitness and population dynamics. To understand the evolution of phage resistance, we co-cultivated a phage-sensitive strain (BJ1) and a poly-lysogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (ST14) under different phage pressures. The population yield remained stable after 30 days. Surprisingly, the initially sensitive strain remained in all populations and its frequency was highest when phage pressure was strongest. Resistance to phages in these populations emerged initially through mutations preventing capsule biosynthesis. Protection through lysogeny was rarely observed because the lysogens have increased death rates due to prophage induction. Unexpectedly, the adaptation process changed at longer time scales the frequency of capsulated cells in BJ1 populations increased again, because the production of capsule was fine-tuned, reducing the ability of phage to absorb. Contrary to the lysogens, these capsulated resistant clones are pan-resistant to a large panel of phages. Intriguingly, some clones exhibited transient non-genetic resistance to phages, suggesting an important role of phenotypic resistance in coevolving populations. Our results show that interactions between lysogens and sensitive strains are shaped by antagonistic co-evolution between phages and bacteria. These processes may involve key physiological traits, such as the capsule, and depend on the time frame of the evolutionary process. At short time scales, simple and costly inactivating mutations are adaptive, but in the long-term, changes drawing more favorable trade-offs between resistance to phages and cell fitness become prevalent.
All raw data is available on figshare.com; 10.6084/m9.figshare.22101998
Competition between lysogenic and sensitive bacteria is determined by the fitness costs of the different emerging phage-resistance strategiesFigshare, doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.22101998.v2.
- Olaya Rendueles
- Eduardo PC Rocha
- Eduardo PC Rocha
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Samuel L Díaz-Muñoz, University of California, Davis, United States
© 2023, Rendueles et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Because brain tissues rarely fossilize, pinpointing when and how modern human cerebral traits emerged in the hominin lineage is particularly challenging. The fragmentary nature of the fossil material, coupled with the difficulty of characterizing such a complex organ, has been the source of long-standing debates. Prominent among them are the uncertainties around the derived or primitive state of the brain organization in the earliest representatives of the genus Homo, more particularly in key regions such as the Broca’s area. By revisiting a particularly well-preserved fossil endocast from the Turkana basin (Kenya), here we confirm that early Homo in Africa had a primitive organization of the Broca’s area ca. 1.9 million years ago. Additionally, our description of KNM-ER 3732 adds further information about the variation pattern of the inferior frontal gyrus in fossil hominins, with implications for early Homo taxic diversity (i.e. one or two Homo species at Koobi Fora) and the nature of the mechanisms involved in the emergence of derived cerebral traits.
Sauropterygia was a taxonomically and ecomorphologically diverse clade of Mesozoic marine reptiles spanning the Early Triassic to the Late Cretaceous. Sauropterygians are traditionally divided into two groups representing two markedly different body plans – the short-necked, durophagous Placodontia and the long-necked Eosauropterygia – whereas Saurosphargidae, a small clade of armoured marine reptiles, is generally considered as the sauropterygian sister-group. However, the early evolutionary history of sauropterygians and their phylogenetic relationships with other groups within Diapsida are still incompletely understood. Here, we report a new saurosphargid from the Early Triassic (Olenekian) of South China – Prosaurosphargis yingzishanensis gen. et sp. nov. – representing the earliest known occurrence of the clade. An updated phylogenetic analysis focussing on the interrelationships among diapsid reptiles recovers saurosphargids as nested within sauropterygians, forming a clade with eosauropterygians to the exclusion of placodonts. Furthermore, a clade comprising Eusaurosphargis and Palatodonta is recovered as the sauropterygian sister-group within Sauropterygomorpha tax. nov. The phylogenetic position of several Early and Middle Triassic sauropterygians of previously uncertain phylogenetic affinity, such as Atopodentatus, Hanosaurus, Majiashanosaurus, and Corosaurus, is also clarified, elucidating the early evolutionary assembly of the sauropterygian body plan. Finally, our phylogenetic analysis supports the placement of Testudines and Archosauromorpha within Archelosauria, a result strongly corroborated by molecular data, but only recently recovered in a phylogenetic analysis using a morphology-only dataset. Our study provides evidence for the rapid diversification of sauropterygians in the aftermath of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction event and emphasises the importance of broad taxonomic sampling in reconstructing phylogenetic relationships among extinct taxa.