VO2max prediction based on submaximal cardiorespiratory relationships and body composition in male runners and cyclists: a population study

  1. Szczepan Wiecha  Is a corresponding author
  2. Przemysław Seweryn Kasiak
  3. Piotr Szwed
  4. Tomasz Kowalski
  5. Igor Cieśliński
  6. Marek Postuła
  7. Andrzej Klusiewicz
  1. Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Poland
  2. Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
  3. Institute of Sport-National Research Institute, Poland

Abstract

Backround: Oxygen uptake (VO2) is one of the most important measures of fitness and critical vital sign. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a valuable method of assessing fitness in sport and clinical settings. There is a lack of large studies on athletic populations to predict VO2max using somatic or submaximal CPET variables. Thus, this study aimed to: (1) derive prediction models for maximal VO2 (VO2max) based on submaximal exercise variables at anaerobic threshold (AT) or respiratory compensation point (RCP) or only somatic and (2) internally validate provided equations.

Methods: 4424 male endurance athletes (EA) underwent maximal symptom-limited CPET on a treadmill (n=3330) or cycle ergometer (n=1094). The cohort was randomly divided between: variables selection (nrunners=1998; ncyclist=656), model building (nrunners=666; ncyclist=219) and validation (nrunners=666; ncyclist=219). Random Forest was used to select the most significant variables. Models were derived and internally validated with Multiple Linear Regression.

Results: Runners were 36.24±8.45 yrs.; BMI=23.94±2.43 kg·m−2; VO2max=53.81±6.67 mL·min−1·kg−1. Cyclists were 37.33±9.13 yr.; BMI=24.34±2.63 kg·m−2; VO2max=51.74±7.99 mL·min−1·kg−1. VO2 at AT and RCP were the most contributing variables to exercise equations. Body mass and body fat had the highest impact on the somatic equation. Model performance for VO2max based on variables at AT was R2=0.81, at RCP was R2=0.91, at AT&RCP was R2=0.91 and for somatic-only was R2=0.43.

Conclusions: Derived prediction models were highly accurate and fairly replicable. Formulae allow for precise estimation of VO2max based on submaximal exercise performance or somatic variables. Presented models are applicable for sport and clinical settling. They are a valuable supplementary method for fitness practitioners to adjust individualised training recommendations.

Funding: No external funding was received for this work.

Data availability

All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Szczepan Wiecha

    Department of Physical Education and Health, Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
    For correspondence
    szczepan.wiecha@awf.edu.pl
    Competing interests
    Szczepan Wiecha, received payment for leading CPET workshops at IX Małopolskich Warsztatach Niewydolności Serca. The author has no other competing interest to declare..
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0001-9458-557X
  2. Przemysław Seweryn Kasiak

    3rd Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0002-0303-6135
  3. Piotr Szwed

    Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  4. Tomasz Kowalski

    Institute of Sport-National Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland
    Competing interests
    Tomasz Kowalski, has received funding from the Institute of Sport - National Research Institute. The author has received consulting fees for regular coaching and consulting work with private clients, Polish Triathlon Federation and The Triathlon Squad professional triathlon team. The author has no other competing interests to declare..
  5. Igor Cieśliński

    Department of Physical Education and Health, Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  6. Marek Postuła

    Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  7. Andrzej Klusiewicz

    Department of Physical Education and Health, Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.

Funding

No external funding was received for this work

Reviewing Editor

  1. Herbert Löllgen, German Medical Associations, Germany

Ethics

Human subjects: The Institutional Review Board of the Bioethical Committee at the Medical University of Warsaw (AKBE/32/2021) has approved the study protocol. The regulations of the Declaration of Helsinki were met during all parts of the study. Each subject delivered written consent to undergo CPET and participate in the study

Version history

  1. Received: January 19, 2023
  2. Preprint posted: February 8, 2023 (view preprint)
  3. Accepted: May 9, 2023
  4. Accepted Manuscript published: May 10, 2023 (version 1)
  5. Version of Record published: May 19, 2023 (version 2)

Copyright

© 2023, Wiecha et al.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

Metrics

  • 1,076
    views
  • 144
    downloads
  • 5
    citations

Views, downloads and citations are aggregated across all versions of this paper published by eLife.

Download links

A two-part list of links to download the article, or parts of the article, in various formats.

Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)

Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)

Cite this article (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)

  1. Szczepan Wiecha
  2. Przemysław Seweryn Kasiak
  3. Piotr Szwed
  4. Tomasz Kowalski
  5. Igor Cieśliński
  6. Marek Postuła
  7. Andrzej Klusiewicz
(2023)
VO2max prediction based on submaximal cardiorespiratory relationships and body composition in male runners and cyclists: a population study
eLife 12:e86291.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.86291

Share this article

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.86291

Further reading

    1. Medicine
    2. Neuroscience
    Yunlu Xue, Yimin Zhou, Constance L Cepko
    Research Advance

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal disease in which there is a loss of cone-mediated daylight vision. As there are >100 disease genes, our goal is to preserve cone vision in a disease gene-agnostic manner. Previously we showed that overexpressing TXNIP, an α-arrestin protein, prolonged cone vision in RP mouse models, using an AAV to express it only in cones. Here, we expressed different alleles of Txnip in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), a support layer for cones. Our goal was to learn more of TXNIP’s structure-function relationships for cone survival, as well as determine the optimal cell type expression pattern for cone survival. The C-terminal half of TXNIP was found to be sufficient to remove GLUT1 from the cell surface, and improved RP cone survival, when expressed in the RPE, but not in cones. Knock-down of HSP90AB1, a TXNIP-interactor which regulates metabolism, improved the survival of cones alone and was additive for cone survival when combined with TXNIP. From these and other results, it is likely that TXNIP interacts with several proteins in the RPE to indirectly support cone survival, with some of these interactions different from those that lead to cone survival when expressed only in cones.

    1. Medicine
    Peigen Chen, Haicheng Chen ... Xing Yang
    Research Article

    Caesarean section scar diverticulum (CSD) is a significant cause of infertility among women who have previously had a Caesarean section, primarily due to persistent inflammatory exudation associated with this condition. Even though abnormal bacterial composition is identified as a critical factor leading to this chronic inflammation, clinical data suggest that a long-term cure is often unattainable with antibiotic treatment alone. In our study, we employed metagenomic analysis and mass spectrometry techniques to investigate the fungal composition in CSD and its interaction with bacteria. We discovered that local fungal abnormalities in CSD can disrupt the stability of the bacterial population and the entire microbial community by altering bacterial abundance via specific metabolites. For instance, Lachnellula suecica reduces the abundance of several Lactobacillus spp., such as Lactobacillus jensenii, by diminishing the production of metabolites like Goyaglycoside A and Janthitrem E. Concurrently, Clavispora lusitaniae and Ophiocordyceps australis can synergistically impact the abundance of Lactobacillus spp. by modulating metabolite abundance. Our findings underscore that abnormal fungal composition and activity are key drivers of local bacterial dysbiosis in CSD.