P. cynocephalus from the Udzungwa Mountains and outgroup T. gelada were omitted from visualization for clarity. The analysed baboon mummy sample MHNL 51000172 (in bold) falls into clade G3-Y. Clade names (A–K) according to Roos et al., 2021, subclades X–Z according to Kopp et al., 2014b; sample IDs include putative species (P.ham, P. hamadryas; P.anu, P. anubis; P.cyn, P. cynocephalus; P.urs, P. ursinus; P.pap, P. papio), country of origin code (CAF, Central African Republic; CMR, Cameroon; COD, Democratic Republic of Congo; DJI, Djibouti; ERI, Eritrea; ETH, Ethiopia; NGA, Nigeria; SDN, Sudan; SSD, South Sudan; SEN, Senegal; SLE, Sierra Leone; SOM, Somalia; TGO, Togo; note that sample SMNS7509 is of unclear geoprovenance), and abbreviated museum code. Nodes with a branch support below 95% are marked with a grey dot. Mitochondrial genomes generated in this study are marked with an asterisk.