• Figure 1.
    Download figureOpen in new tabFigure 1. African fossil sites from the Middle and earliest Late Pleistocene.

    Sites discussed in the text are highlighted in pink here. Geological age estimations for each fossil hominin assemblage are given in Table 1, along with references.

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24234.003

    Figure 2.
    Download figureOpen in new tabFigure 2. Phylogenetic scenarios for H. naledi.

    A simplified cladogram of Homo, with the possible placements of H. naledi indicated. The cladogram places A. africanus as an outgroup to the Homo + Au. sediba clade, as consistent with nearly all phylogenetic analyses of these species (Berger et al., 2010; Dembo et al., 2015, 2016). To simplify the tree, we have omitted H. antecessor, H. heidelbergensis and Neanderthals, which all phylogenetic analyses place as sisters to H. sapiens relative to H. erectus. There is no present consensus about the branching order among H. habilis, H. rudolfensis, H. floresiensis and Au. sediba (Dembo et al., 2015, 2016), and so these are depicted as a polytomy.

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24234.005