Theta cycle dynamics of spatial representations in the lateral septum

  1. Brain & Cognition, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
  2. Neuro-Electronics Research Flanders, Leuven, Belgium
  3. Lead Contact

Editors

  • Reviewing Editor
    Emilio Kropff
    Fundación Instituto Leloir, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Senior Editor
    Laura Colgin
    University of Texas at Austin, Austin, United States of America

Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

Summary:
The authors provide very compelling evidence that the lateral septum (LS) engages in theta cycle skipping.

Strengths:
The data and analysis are highly compelling regarding the existence of cycle skipping.

Weaknesses:
The manuscript falls short on describing the behavioral or physiological importance of the witnessed theta cycle skipping, and there is a lack of attention to detail with some of the findings and figures:

More/any description is needed in the article text to explain the switching task and the behavioral paradigm generally. This should be moved from only being in methods as it is essential for understanding the study.

An explanation is needed as to how a cell can be theta skipping if it is not theta rhythmic.

The most interesting result, in my opinion, is the last paragraph of the entire results section, where there is more switching in the alternation task, but the reader is kind of left hanging as to how this relates to other findings. How does this relate to differences in decoding of relative arms (the correct or incorrect arm) during those theta cycles or to the animal's actual choice? Similarly, how does it relate to the animal's actual choice? Is this phenomenon actually behaviorally or physiologically meaningful at all? Does it contribute at all to any sort of planning or decision-making?

The authors state that there is more cycle skipping in the alternation task than in the switching task, and that this switching occurs in the lead-up to the choice point. Then they say there is a higher peak at ~125 in the alternation task, which is consistent. However, in the final sentence, the authors note that "This result indicates that the representations of the goal arms alternate more strongly ahead of the choice point when animals performed a task in which either goal arm potentially leads to reward." Doesn't either arm potentially lead to a reward (but different amounts) in the switching task, not the alternation task? Yet switching is stronger in the alternation task, which is not constant and contradicts this last sentence.

Additionally, regarding the same sentence - "representations of the goal arms alternate more strongly ahead of the choice point when the animals performed a task in which either goal arm potentially leads to reward." - is this actually what is going on? Is there any reason at all to think this has anything to do with reward versus just a navigational choice?

Similarly, the authors mention several times that the LS links the HPC to 'reward' regions in the brain, and it has been found that the LS represents rewarded locations comparatively more than the hippocampus. How does this relate to their finding?

Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

Summary
Recent evidence indicates that cells of the navigation system representing different directions and whole spatial routes fire in a rhythmic alternation during 5-10 Hz (theta) network oscillation (Brandon et al., 2013, Kay et al., 2020). This phenomenon of theta cycle skipping was also reported in broader circuitry connecting the navigation system with the cognitive control regions (Jankowski et al., 2014, Tang et al., 2021). Yet nothing was known about the translation of these temporally separate representations to midbrain regions involved in reward processing as well as the hypothalamic regions, which integrate metabolic, visceral, and sensory signals with the descending signals from the forebrain to ensure adaptive control of innate behaviors (Carus-Cadavieco et al., 2017). The present work aimed to investigate theta cycle skipping and alternating representations of trajectories in the lateral septum, neurons of which receive inputs from a large number of CA1 and nearly all CA3 pyramidal cells (Risold and Swanson, 1995). While spatial firing has been reported in the lateral septum before (Leutgeb and Mizumori, 2002, Wirtshafter and Wilson, 2019), its dynamic aspects have remained elusive. The present study replicates the previous findings of theta-rhythmic neuronal activity in the lateral septum and reports a temporal alternation of spatial representations in this region, thus filling an important knowledge gap and significantly extending the understanding of the processing of spatial information in the brain. The lateral septum thus propagates the representations of alternative spatial behaviors to its efferent regions. The results can instruct further research of neural mechanisms supporting learning during goal-oriented navigation and decision-making in the behaviourally crucial circuits entailing the lateral septum.

Strengths
To this end, cutting-edge approaches for high-density monitoring of neuronal activity in freely behaving rodents and neural decoding were applied. Strengths of this work include comparisons of different anatomically and probably functionally distinct compartments of the lateral septum, innervated by different hippocampal domains and projecting to different parts of the hypothalamus; large neuronal datasets including many sessions with simultaneously recorded neurons; consequently, the rhythmic aspects of the spatial code could be directly revealed from the analysis of multiple spike trains, which were also used for decoding of spatial trajectories; and comparisons of the spatial coding between the two differently reinforced tasks.

Weaknesses
Possible in principle, with the present data across sessions, longitudinal analysis of the spatial coding during learning the task was not performed. Without using perturbation techniques, the present approach could not identify the aspects of the spatial code actually influencing the generation of behaviors by downstream regions.

Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

Summary:
Bzymek and Kloosterman carried out a complex experiment to determine the temporal spike dynamics of cells in the dorsal and intermediate lateral septum during the performance of a Y-maze spatial task. In this descriptive study, the authors aim to determine if inputting spatial and temporal dynamics of hippocampal cells carry over to the lateral septum, thereby presenting the possibility that this information could then be conveyed to other interconnected subcortical circuits. The authors are successful in these aims, demonstrating that the phenomenon of theta cycle skipping is present in cells of the lateral septum. This finding is a significant contribution to the field as it indicates the phenomenon is present in neocortex, hippocampus, and the subcortical hub of the lateral septal circuit. In effect, this discovery closes the circuit loop on theta cycle skipping between the interconnected regions of the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and lateral septum. Moreover, the authors make 2 additional findings: 1) There are differences in the degree of theta modulation and theta cycle skipping as a function of depth, between the dorsal and intermediate lateral septum; and 2) The significant proportion of lateral septum cells that exhibit theta cycle skipping, predominantly do so during 'non-local' spatial processing.

Strengths: The major strength of the study lies in its design, with 2 behavioral tasks within the Y-maze and a battery of established analyses drawn from prior studies that have established spatial and temporal firing patterns of entorhinal and hippocampal cells during these tasks. Primary among these analyses, is the ability to decode the animal's position relative to locations of increased spatial cognitive demand, such as the choice point before the goal arms. The presence of theta cycle skipping cells in the lateral septum is robust and has significant implications for the ability to dissect the generation and transfer of spatial routes to goals within and between the neocortex and subcortical neural circuits.

Weaknesses: There are no major discernable weaknesses in the study, yet the scope and mechanism of the theta cycle phenomenon remain to be placed in the context of other phenomena indicative of spatial processing independent of the animal's current position. An example of this would be the ensemble-level 'scan ahead' activity of hippocampal place cells (Gupta et al., 2012; Johnson & Redish, 2007). Given the extensive analytical demands of the study, it is understandable that the authors chose to limit the analyses to the spatial and burst firing dynamics of the septal cells rather than the phasic firing of septal action potentials relative to local theta oscillations or CA1 theta oscillations. Yet, one would ideally be able to link, rather than parse the phenomena of temporal dynamics. For example, Tingley et al recently showed that there was significant phase coding of action potentials in lateral septum cells relative to spatial location (Tingley & Buzsaki, 2018). This begs the question as to whether the non-uniform distribution of septal cell activity within the Y-maze may have a phasic firing component, as well as a theta cycle skipping component. If so, these phenomena could represent another means of information transfer within the spatial circuit during cognitive demands. Alternatively, these phenomena could be part of the same process, ultimately representing the coherent input of information from one region to another. Future experiments will therefore have to sort out whether theta cycle skipping, is a feature of either rate or phase coding, or perhaps both, depending on circuit and cognitive demands.

The authors have achieved their aims of describing the temporal dynamics of the lateral septum, at both the dorsal extreme and the intermediate region. All conclusions are warranted.

  1. Howard Hughes Medical Institute
  2. Wellcome Trust
  3. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
  4. Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation