Integrating Gaze, image analysis, and body tracking: Foothold selection during locomotion

  1. Center for Perceptual Systems University of Texas at Austin
  2. Department of Biology Northeastern University


  • Reviewing Editor
    Miriam Spering
    The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
  • Senior Editor
    Tirin Moore
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, United States of America

Reviewer #1 (Public Review):

The work of Muller and colleagues concerns the question of where we place our feet when passing uneven terrain, in particular how we trade-off path length against the steepness of each single step. The authors find that paths are chosen that are consistently less steep and deviate from the straight line more than an average random path, suggesting that participants indeed trade-off steepness for path length. They show that this might be related to biomechanical properties, specifically the leg length of the walkers. In addition, they show using a neural network model that participants could choose the footholds based on their sensory (visual) information about depth.

The work is a natural continuation of some of the researchers' earlier work that related the immediately following steps to gaze [17]. Methodologically, the work is very impressive and presents a further step forward towards understanding real-world locomotion and its interaction with sampling visual information. While some of the results may seem somewhat trivial in hindsight (as always in this kind of study), I still think this is a very important approach to understanding locomotion in the wild better.

The manuscript as it stands has several issues with the reporting of the results and the statistics. In particular, it is hard to assess the inter-individual variability, as some of the data are aggregated across individuals, while in other cases only central tendencies (means or medians) are reported without providing measures of variability; this is critical, in particular as N=9 is a rather small sample size. It would also be helpful to see the actual data for some of the information merely described in the text (e.g., the dependence of \Delta H on path length). When reporting statistical analyses, test statistics and degrees of freedom should be given (or other variants that unambiguously describe the analysis). The CNN analysis chosen to link the step data to visual sampling (gaze and depth features) should be motivated more clearly, and it should describe how training and test sets were generated and separated for this analysis. There are also some parts of figures, where it is unclear what is shown or where units are missing. The details are listed in the private review section, as I believe that all of these issues can be fixed in principle without additional experiments.

Reviewer #2 (Public Review):

This manuscript examines how humans walk over uneven terrain using vision to decide where to step. There is a huge lack of evidence about this because the vast majority of locomotion studies have focused on steady, well-controlled conditions, and not on decisions made in the real world. The author team has already made great advances in this topic, but there has been no practical way to map 3D terrain features in naturalistic environments. They have now developed a way to integrate such measurements along with gaze and step tracking, which allows quantitative evaluation of the proposed trade-offs between stepping vertically onto vs. stepping around obstacles, along with how far people look to decide where to step.

1. I am impressed by the overarching outlook of the researchers. They seek to understand human decision-making in real-world locomotion tasks, a topic of obvious relevance to the human condition but not often examined in research. The field has been biased toward well-controlled studies, which have scientific advantages but also serious limitations. A well-controlled study may eliminate human decisions and favor steady or periodic motions in laboratory conditions that facilitate reliable and repeatable data collection. The present study discards all of these usually-favorable factors for rather uncontrolled conditions, yet still finds a way to explore real-world behaviors in a quantitative manner. It is an ambitious and forward-thinking approach, used to tackle an ecologically relevant question.

2. There are serious technical challenges to a study of this kind. It is true that there are existing solutions for motion tracking, eye tracking, and most recently, 3D terrain mapping. However most of the solutions do not have turn-key simplicity and require significant technical expertise. To integrate multiple such solutions together is even more challenging. The authors are to be commended on the technical integration here.

3. In the absence of prior studies on this issue, it was necessary to invent new analysis methods to go with the new experimental measures. This is non-trivial and places an added burden on the authors to communicate the new methods. It's harder to be at the forefront in the choice of topic, technical experimental techniques, and analysis methods all at once.

1. I am predisposed to agree with all of the major conclusions, which seem reasonable and likely to be correct. Ignoring that bias, I was confused by much of the analysis. There is an argument that the chosen paths were not random, based on a comparison of probability distributions that I could not understand. There are plots described as "turn probability vs. X" where the axes are unlabeled and the data range above 1. I hope the authors can provide a clearer description to support the findings. This manuscript stands to be cited well as THE evidence for looking ahead to plan steps, but that is only meaningful if others can understand (and ultimately replicate) the evidence.

2. I wish a bit more and simpler data could be provided. It is great that step parameter distributions are shown, but I am left wondering how this compares to level walking. The distributions also seem to use absolute values for slope and direction, for understandable reasons, but that also probably skews the actual distribution. Presumably, there should be (and is) a peak at zero slope and zero direction, but absolute values mean that non-zero steps may appear approximately doubled in frequency, compared to separate positive and negative. I would hope to see actual distributions, which moreover are likely not independent and probably have a covariance structure. The covariance might help with the argument that steps are not random, and might even be an easy way to suggest the trade-off between turning and stepping vertically. This is not to disregard the present use of absolute values but to suggest some basic summary of the data before taking that step.

3. Along these same lines, the manuscript could do more to enable others to digest and go further with the approach, and to facilitate interpretability of results. I like the use of a neural network to demonstrate the predictiveness of stepping, but aside from above-chance probability, what else can inform us about what visual data drives that? Similarly, the step distributions and height-turn trade-off curves are somewhat opaque and do not make it easy to envision further efforts by others, for example, people who want to model locomotion. For that, clearer (and perhaps) simpler measures would be helpful.

I am absolutely in support of this manuscript and expect it to have a high impact. I do feel that it could benefit from clarification of the analysis and how it supports the conclusions.

Reviewer #3 (Public Review):

The systematic way in which path selection is parametrically investigated is the main contribution.

The authors have developed an impressive workflow to study gait and gaze in natural terrain.

1. The training and validation data of the CNN are not explained fully making it unclear if the data tells us anything about the visual features used to guide steering.

It is not clear how or on what data the network was trained (training vs. validation vs. un-peeked test data), and justification of the choices made. There is no discussion of possible overfitting. The network could be learning just e.g. specific rock arrangements. If the network is overfitting the "features" it uses could be very artefactual, pixel-level patterns and not the kinds of "features" the human reader immediately has in mind.

2. The use of descriptive terminology should be made systematic.

Specifically, the following terms are used without giving a single, clear definition for them: path, step, step location, foot plant, foothold, future foothold, foot location, future foot location, foot position.

I think some terms are being used interchangeably. I would really highly recommend a diagrammatic cartoon sketch, showing the definitions of all these terms in a single figure, and then sticking to them in the main text.

3. More coverage of different interpretations / less interpretation in the abstract/introduction would be prudent

The authors discuss the path selection very much on the basis of energetic costs and gait stability. At least mention should be given to other plausible parameters the participants might be optimizing (or that indeed they may be just satisficing).

That is, it is taken as "given" that energetic cost is the major driver of path selection in your task, and that the relevant perception relies on internal models. Neither of these is a priori obvious nor is it as far as I can tell shown by the data (optimizing other variables, satisficing behavior, or online "direct perception" cannot be ruled out).

  1. Howard Hughes Medical Institute
  2. Wellcome Trust
  3. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
  4. Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation