Growth of E. coli pheT(G318W) strain (grey bars) relative to wild type (black bars) under increasing concentrations of L-p-Tyr (A) or D,L-m-Tyr (B) relative to Phe. Cultures were grown in M9 minimal media supplemented with amino acids expressed as a ratio of Phe:Tyr. A ratio of 1:1 corresponds to 3 µM of each amino acid. (C) Growth of PheRS editing deficient strain of E. coli in an MG1655 background in the presence of different tyrosine isomers at 37°C. Bars are the mean of three independent cultures, with errors bars representing ± SD.