The completion of genome duplication during the cell cycle is threatened by the presence of replication fork barriers (RFBs). Following collision with a RFB replication proteins can dissociate from the stalled fork (fork collapse) rendering it incapable of further DNA synthesis unless recombination intervenes to restart replication. We use time-lapse microscopy and genetic assays to show that recombination is initiated within ~10 minutes of replication fork blockage at a site-specific barrier in fission yeast, leading to a restarted fork within ~60 minutes, which is only prevented/curtailed by the arrival of the opposing replication fork. The restarted fork is susceptible to further collapse causing hyper-recombination downstream of the barrier. Surprisingly, in our system fork restart is unnecessary for maintaining cell viability. Seemingly the risk of failing to complete replication prior to mitosis is sufficient to warrant the induction of recombination even though it can cause deleterious genetic change.
- Stephen C Kowalczykowski, University of California, Davis, United States
© 2015, Nguyen et al.
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Homologous recombination helps ensure the timely completion of genome duplication by restarting collapsed replication forks. However, this beneficial function is not without risk as replication restarted by homologous recombination is prone to template switching (TS) that can generate deleterious genome rearrangements associated with diseases such as cancer. Previously we established an assay for studying TS in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Nguyen et al., 2015). Here, we show that TS is detected up to 75 kb downstream of a collapsed replication fork and can be triggered by head-on collision between the restarted fork and RNA Polymerase III transcription. The Pif1 DNA helicase, Pfh1, promotes efficient restart and also suppresses TS. A further three conserved helicases (Fbh1, Rqh1 and Srs2) strongly suppress TS, but there is no change in TS frequency in cells lacking Fml1 or Mus81. We discuss how these factors likely influence TS.
Maternal pre-pregnancy (pregravid) obesity is associated with adverse outcomes for both mother and offspring. Amongst the complications for the offspring is increased susceptibility and severity of neonatal infections necessitating admission to the intensive care unit, notably bacterial sepsis and enterocolitis. Previous studies have reported aberrant responses to LPS and polyclonal stimulation by umbilical cord blood monocytes that were mediated by alterations in the epigenome. In this study, we show that pregravid obesity dysregulates umbilical cord blood monocyte responses to bacterial and viral pathogens. Specifically, interferon-stimulated gene expression and inflammatory responses to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and E. coli were significantly dampened, respectively . Although upstream signaling events were comparable, translocation of the key transcription factor NF-κB and chromatin accessibility at pro-inflammatory gene promoters following TLR stimulation was significantly attenuated. Using a rhesus macaque model of western style diet-induced obesity, we further demonstrate that this defect is detected in fetal peripheral monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages during gestation. Collectively, these data indicate that maternal obesity alters metabolic, signaling, and epigenetic profiles of fetal monocytes leading to a state of immune paralysis during late gestation and at birth.