Existing in vitro models of human skeletal muscle cannot recapitulate the organization and function of native muscle, limiting their use in physiological and pharmacological studies. Here, we demonstrate engineering of electrically and chemically responsive, contractile human muscle tissues ('myobundles') using primary myogenic cells. These biomimetic constructs exhibit aligned architecture, multinucleated and striated myofibers, and a Pax7+ cell pool. They contract spontaneously and respond to electrical stimuli with twitch and tetanic contractions. Positive correlation between contractile force and GCaMP6-reported calcium responses enables non-invasive tracking of myobundle function and drug response. During culture, myobundles maintain functional acetylcholine receptors and structurally and functionally mature, evidenced by increased myofiber diameter and improved calcium handling and contractile strength. In response to diversely acting drugs, myobundles undergo dose-dependent hypertrophy or toxic myopathy similar to clinical outcomes. Human myobundles provide an enabling platform for predictive drug and toxicology screening and development of novel therapeutics for muscle-related disorders.
Human subjects: Human skeletal muscle samples were obtained through standard needle biopsy or surgical waste under Duke University IRB approved protocols (Pro00048509 and Pro00012628).
- Amy J Wagers, Harvard University, United States
© 2015, Madden et al.
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Aged tendons have disrupted homeostasis, increased injury risk, and impaired healing capacity. Understanding mechanisms of homeostatic disruption is crucial for developing therapeutics to retain tendon health through the lifespan. Here, we developed a novel model of accelerated tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) aging via depletion of Scleraxis-lineage cells in young mice (Scx-DTR). Scx-DTR recapitulates many aspects of tendon aging including comparable declines in cellularity, alterations in ECM structure, organization, and composition. Single cell RNA sequencing demonstrated a conserved decline in tenocytes associated with ECM biosynthesis in aged and Scx-DTR tendons, identifying the requirement for Scleraxis-lineage cells during homeostasis. However, the remaining cells in aged and Scx-DTR tendons demonstrate functional divergence. Aged tenocytes become pro-inflammatory and lose proteostasis. In contrast, tenocytes from Scx-DTR tendons demonstrate enhanced remodeling capacity. Collectively, this study defines Scx-DTR as a novel model of accelerated tendon ECM aging and identifies novel biological intervention points to maintain tendon function through the lifespan.
MicroRNA-155 (miR155) is overexpressed in various inflammatory diseases and cancer, in which bone resorption and osteolysis are frequently observed. However, the role of miR155 on osteogenesis and bone mass phenotype is still unknown. Here, we report a low bone mass phenotype in the long bone of Mir155-Tg mice compared with wild-type mice. In contrast, Mir155-KO mice showed a high bone mass phenotype and protective effect against inflammation-induced bone loss. Mir155-KO mice showed robust bone regeneration in the ectopic and orthotopic model, but Mir155-Tg mice showed compromised bone regeneration compared with the wild-type mice. Similarly, the osteogenic differentiation potential of bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) from Mir155-KO mice was robust and Mir155-Tg was compromised compared with that of wild-type mice. Moreover, Mir155 knockdown in BMSCs from wild-type mice showed higher osteogenic differentiation potential, supporting the results from Mir155-KO mice. TargetScan analysis predicted sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1pr1) as a target gene of Mir155, which was further confirmed by luciferase assay and Mir155 knockdown. S1pr1 overexpression in BMSCs robustly promoted osteogenic differentiation without affecting cell viability and proliferation. Furthermore, osteoclastogenic differentiation of Mir155-Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages was inhibited compared with that of wild-type mice. Thus, Mir155 showed a catabolic effect on osteogenesis and bone mass phenotype via interaction with the S1pr1 gene, suggesting inhibition of Mir155 as a potential strategy for bone regeneration and bone defect healing.