Cancer cells display aneuploid karyotypes and typically mis-segregate chromosomes at high rates, a phenotype referred to as chromosomal instability (CIN). To test the effects of aneuploidy on chromosome segregation and other mitotic phenotypes we used the colorectal cancer cell line DLD1 (2n=46) and two variants with trisomy 7 or 13 (DLD1+7 and DLD1+13), as well as euploid and trisomy 13 amniocytes (AF and AF+13). We found that trisomic cells displayed higher rates of chromosome mis-segregation compared to their euploid counterparts. Furthermore, cells with trisomy 13 displayed a distinctive cytokinesis failure phenotype. We showed that up-regulation of SPG20 expression, brought about by trisomy 13 in DLD1+13 and AF+13 cells, is both required and sufficient for the cytokinesis failure phenotype. Overall, our study shows that aneuploidy can induce chromosome mis-segregation. Moreover, we identified a trisomy 13-specific mitotic phenotype that is driven by up-regulation of a gene encoded on the aneuploid chromosome.
Human subjects: The study acknowledged the ethics guidelines under national rules and accordingly to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, and was approved by the Ethics Committee of Hospital de S. Jo�o-Porto (dispatch 14 Nov 2012) (approval number 237/2012). Informed consent forms with detailed information were provided to all patients. The study did not imply collection of extra material from the healthy donor females (only surplus cells/tissues were used); the study didn't bring any direct benefits to the volunteers; there were no risks or costs for the volunteers; there was no access to patient clinical data (samples were obtained in anonymous form from the Hospital Genetics Department); participation was volunteer and free to be interrupted at any moment; there are no ethical impacts predicted; there will be no commercial interests.
- Jon Pines, The Gurdon Institute, United Kingdom
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The interplay among different cells in a tissue is essential for maintaining homeostasis. Although disease states have been traditionally attributed to individual cell types, increasing evidence and new therapeutic options have demonstrated the primary role of multicellular functions to understand health and disease, opening new avenues to understand pathogenesis and develop new treatment strategies. We recently described the cellular composition and dynamics of the human oral mucosa; however, the spatial arrangement of cells is needed to better understand a morphologically complex tissue. Here, we link single-cell RNA sequencing, spatial transcriptomics, and high-resolution multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridisation to characterise human oral mucosa in health and oral chronic inflammatory disease. We deconvolved expression for resolution enhancement of spatial transcriptomic data and defined highly specialised epithelial and stromal compartments describing location-specific immune programs. Furthermore, we spatially mapped a rare pathogenic fibroblast population localised in a highly immunogenic region, responsible for lymphocyte recruitment through CXCL8 and CXCL10 and with a possible role in pathological angiogenesis through ALOX5AP. Collectively, our study provides a comprehensive reference for the study of oral chronic disease pathogenesis.
Peroxiredoxin 5 (Prdx5) is involved in pathophysiological regulation via the stress-induced cellular response. However, its function in the bone remains largely unknown. Here, we show that Prdx5 is involved in osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation, resulting in osteoporotic phenotypes in Prdx5 knockout (Prdx5Ko) male mice. To investigate the function of Prdx5 in the bone, osteoblasts were analyzed through immunoprecipitation (IP) and liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) methods, while osteoclasts were analyzed through RNA-sequencing. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNPK) was identified as a potential binding partner of Prdx5 during osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Prdx5 acts as a negative regulator of hnRNPK-mediated osteocalcin (Bglap) expression. In addition, transcriptomic analysis revealed that in vitro differentiated osteoclasts from the bone marrow-derived macrophages of Prdx5Ko mice showed enhanced expression of several osteoclast-related genes. These findings indicate that Prdx5 might contribute to the maintenance of bone homeostasis by regulating osteoblast differentiation. This study proposes a new function of Prdx5 in bone remodeling that may be used in developing therapeutic strategies for bone diseases.