NOCA-1 Functions with γ-tubulin and in parallel to Patronin to assemble non-centrosomal microtubule arrays in C. elegans
Non-centrosomal microtubule arrays assemble in differentiated tissues to perform mechanical and transport-based functions. Here, we identify C. elegans NOCA-1 as a protein with homology to vertebrate ninein. NOCA-1 contributes to the assembly of non-centrosomal microtubule arrays in multiple tissues. In the larval epidermis, NOCA-1 functions redundantly with the minus end protection factor Patronin/PTRN-1 to assemble a circumferential microtubule array essential for worm growth and morphogenesis. Controlled degradation of a γ-tubulin complex subunit in this tissue revealed that γ-tubulin acts with NOCA-1 in parallel to Patronin/PTRN-1. In the germline, NOCA-1 and γ-tubulin co-localize at the cell surface, and inhibiting either leads to a microtubule assembly defect. γ-tubulin targets independently of NOCA-1, but NOCA-1 targeting requires γ-tubulin when a non-essential putatively palmitoylated cysteine is mutated. These results show that NOCA-1 acts with γ-tubulin to assemble non-centrosomal arrays in multiple tissues and highlight functional overlap between the ninein and Patronin protein families.
Article and author information
- Anna Akhmanova, Utrecht University, Netherlands
- Received: May 11, 2015
- Accepted: September 12, 2015
- Accepted Manuscript published: September 15, 2015 (version 1)
- Version of Record published: October 16, 2015 (version 2)
© 2015, Wang et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
- Page views
Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Crossref, Scopus, PubMed Central.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Cite this article (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
- Cell Biology
The specific functional properties of a tissue are distributed amongst its component cell types. The various cells act coherently, as an ensemble, in order to execute a physiologic response. Modern approaches for identifying and dissecting novel physiologic mechanisms would benefit from an ability to identify specific cell types in live tissues that could then be imaged in real-time. Current techniques require the use of fluorescent genetic reporters that are not only cumbersome, but which only allow the simultaneous study of 3 or 4 cell types at a time. We report a non-invasive imaging modality that capitalizes on the endogenous autofluorescence signatures of the metabolic cofactors NAD(P)H and FAD. By marrying morphological characteristics with autofluorescence signatures, all seven of the airway epithelial cell types can be distinguished simultaneously in mouse tracheal explant in real-time. Furthermore, we find that this methodology for direct cell type specific identification avoids pitfalls associated with the use of ostensibly cell type-specific markers that are, in fact, altered by clinically relevant physiologic stimuli. Finally, we utilize this methodology to interrogate real-time physiology and identify dynamic secretory cell associated antigen passages (SAPs) that form in response to cholinergic stimulus. The identical process has been well documented in the intestine where the dynamic formation of secretory and goblet cell associated antigen passages (SAPs and GAPs) enable luminal antigen sampling. Given that airway secretory cells can be stimulated to make mucous within hours, we suspect that both SAPs and GAPs are also used for luminal antigen sampling in the airway. This hypothesis is supported by our observation that secretory cells with airway SAPs are frequently juxtaposed to antigen presenting cells.
- Cell Biology
Endothelial cells line all blood vessels, where they coordinate blood vessel formation and the blood-tissue barrier via regulation of cell-cell junctions. The nucleus also regulates endothelial cell behaviors, but it is unclear how the nucleus contributes to endothelial cell activities at the cell periphery. Here, we show that the nuclear-localized linker of the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex protein SUN1 regulates vascular sprouting and endothelial cell-cell junction morphology and function. Loss of murine endothelial Sun1 impaired blood vessel formation and destabilized junctions, angiogenic sprouts formed but retracted in SUN1-depleted sprouts, and zebrafish vessels lacking Sun1b had aberrant junctions and defective cell-cell connections. At the cellular level, SUN1 stabilized endothelial cell-cell junctions, promoted junction function, and regulated contractility. Mechanistically, SUN1 depletion altered cell behaviors via the cytoskeleton without changing transcriptional profiles. Reduced peripheral microtubule density, fewer junction contacts, and increased catastrophes accompanied SUN1 loss, and microtubule depolymerization phenocopied effects on junctions. Depletion of GEF-H1, a microtubule-regulated Rho activator, or the LINC complex protein nesprin-1 rescued defective junctions of SUN1-depleted endothelial cells. Thus, endothelial SUN1 regulates peripheral cell-cell junctions from the nucleus via LINC complex-based microtubule interactions that affect peripheral microtubule dynamics and Rho-regulated contractility, and this long-range regulation is important for proper blood vessel sprouting and junction integrity.