Using a new bioinformatic method to analyze ribosome profiling data, we show that 40% of lncRNAs and pseudogene RNAs expressed in human cells are translated. In addition, ~35% of mRNA coding genes are translated upstream of the primary protein-coding region (uORFs) and 4% are translated downstream (dORFs). Translated lncRNAs preferentially localize in the cytoplasm, whereas untranslated lncRNAs preferentially localize in the nucleus. The translation efficiency of cytoplasmic lncRNAs is nearly comparable to that of mRNAs, suggesting that cytoplasmic lncRNAs are engaged by the ribosome and translated. While most peptides generated from lncRNAs may be highly unstable byproducts without function, ~9% of the peptides are conserved in ORFs in mouse transcripts, as are 74% of pseudogene peptides, 24% of uORF peptides and 32% of dORF peptides. Analyses of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates of these conserved peptides show that some are under stabilizing selection, suggesting potential functional importance.
- Nahum Sonenberg, McGill University, Canada
© 2015, Ji et al.
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DBC1 has been characterized as a key regulator of physiological and pathophysiological activities, such as DNA damage, senescence, and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism by which the functional stability of DBC1 is regulated has yet to be elucidated. Here, we report that the ubiquitination-mediated degradation of DBC1 is regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SIAH2 and deubiquitinase OTUD5 under hypoxic stress. Mechanistically, hypoxia promoted DBC1 to interact with SIAH2 but not OTUD5, resulting in the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of DBC1 through the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. SIAH2 knockout inhibited tumor cell proliferation and migration, which could be rescued by double knockout of SIAH2/CCAR2. Human tissue microarray analysis further revealed that the SIAH2/DBC1 axis was responsible for tumor progression under hypoxic stress. These findings define a key role of the hypoxia-mediated SIAH2-DBC1 pathway in the progression of human breast cancer and provide novel insights into the metastatic mechanism of breast cancer.
Multiciliated cells (MCCs) are terminally differentiated epithelia that assemble multiple motile cilia used to promote fluid flow. To template these cilia, MCCs dramatically expand their centriole content during a process known as centriole amplification. In cycling cells, the master regulator of centriole assembly Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) is essential for centriole duplication; however recent work has questioned the role of PLK4 in centriole assembly in MCCs. To address this discrepancy, we created genetically engineered mouse models and demonstrated that both PLK4 protein and kinase activity are critical for centriole amplification in MCCs. Tracheal epithelial cells that fail centriole amplification accumulate large assemblies of centriole proteins and do not undergo apical surface area expansion. These results show that the initial stages of centriole assembly are conserved between cycling cells and MCCs and suggest that centriole amplification and surface area expansion are coordinated events.