Prdm14 is a sequence-specific transcriptional regulator of embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency and primordial germ cell (PGC) formation. It exerts its function, at least in part, through repressing genes associated with epigenetic modification and cell differentiation. Here, we show that this repressive function is mediated through an ETO-family co-repressor Mtgr1, which tightly binds to the pre-SET/SET domains of Prdm14 and co-occupies its genomic targets in mouse ESCs. We generated two monobodies, synthetic binding proteins, targeting the Prdm14 SET domain and demonstrate their utility, respectively, in facilitating crystallization and structure determination of the Prdm14-Mtgr1 complex, or as genetically encoded inhibitor of the Prdm14-Mtgr1 interaction. Structure-guided point mutants and the monobody abrogated the Prdm14-Mtgr1 association and disrupted Prdm14's function in mESC gene expression and PGC formation in vitro. Altogether, our work uncovers the molecular mechanism underlying Prdm14-mediated repression and provides renewable reagents for studying and controlling Prdm14 functions.
- Karen Adelman, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, United States
© 2015, Nady et al.
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Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is an NAD+-dependent histone H3 deacetylase that is prominently found associated with chromatin, attenuates transcriptionally active promoters and regulates DNA repair, metabolic homeostasis and lifespan. Unlike other sirtuins, it has low affinity to free histone tails but demonstrates strong binding to nucleosomes. It is poorly understood how SIRT6 docking on nucleosomes stimulates its histone deacetylation activity. Here, we present the structure of human SIRT6 bound to a nucleosome determined by cryogenic electron microscopy. The zinc finger domain of SIRT6 associates tightly with the acidic patch of the nucleosome through multiple arginine anchors. The Rossmann fold domain binds to the terminus of the looser DNA half of the nucleosome, detaching two turns of the DNA from the histone octamer and placing the NAD+ binding pocket close to the DNA exit site. This domain shows flexibility with respect to the fixed zinc finger and moves with, but also relative to, the unwrapped DNA terminus. We apply molecular dynamics simulations of the histone tails in the nucleosome to show that in this mode of interaction, the active site of SIRT6 is perfectly poised to catalyze deacetylation of the H3 histone tail and that the partial unwrapping of the DNA allows even lysines close to the H3 core to reach the enzyme.
The surface layer of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius consists of a flexible but stable outer protein layer that interacts with an inner, membrane-bound protein.