Genetic mechanisms control the linear scaling between related cortical primary and higher order sensory areas

  1. Andreas Zembrzycki  Is a corresponding author
  2. Adam M Stocker
  3. Axel Leingärtner
  4. Setsuko Sahara
  5. Shen-Ju Chou
  6. Valery Kalatsky
  7. Scott R May
  8. Michael P Stryker
  9. Dennis DM O'Leary
  1. The Salk Institute For Biological Studies, United States
  2. Minnesota State University Moorhead, United States
  3. University Medical Center, Germany
  4. King's College London, United Kingdom
  5. Academia Sinica, Taiwan
  6. Enthought Scientific Computing Solutions, United States
  7. University of California, San Francisco, United States

Abstract

In mammals, the neocortical layout consists of few modality-specific primary sensory areas and a multitude of higher order ones. Abnormal layout of cortical areas may disrupt sensory function and behavior. Developmental genetic mechanisms specify primary areas, but mechanisms influencing higher order area properties are unknown. By exploiting gain-of and loss-of function mouse models of the transcription factor Emx2, we have generated bi-directional changes in primary visual cortex size in vivo and have used it as a model to show a novel and prominent function for genetic mechanisms regulating primary visual area size and also proportionally dictating the sizes of surrounding higher order visual areas. This finding redefines the role for intrinsic genetic mechanisms to concomitantly specify and scale primary and related higher order sensory areas in a linear fashion.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Andreas Zembrzycki

    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute For Biological Studies, La Jolla, United States
    For correspondence
    azembrzycki@salk.edu
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  2. Adam M Stocker

    Biosciences Department, Minnesota State University Moorhead, Moorhead, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  3. Axel Leingärtner

    University Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center, Hamburg, Germany
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  4. Setsuko Sahara

    MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  5. Shen-Ju Chou

    Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  6. Valery Kalatsky

    Enthought Scientific Computing Solutions, Austin, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  7. Scott R May

    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute For Biological Studies, La Jolla, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  8. Michael P Stryker

    Center for Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  9. Dennis DM O'Leary

    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute For Biological Studies, La Jolla, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.

Ethics

Animal experimentation: All experiments were approved under Protocol #09-012 and conducted following the guidelines of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the Salk Institute and were in full compliance with the guidelines of the National Institutes of Health for the care and use of laboratory animals.

Reviewing Editor

  1. Moses V Chao, New York University School of Medicine, United States

Publication history

  1. Received: September 5, 2015
  2. Accepted: December 23, 2015
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: December 24, 2015 (version 1)
  4. Version of Record published: January 26, 2016 (version 2)

Copyright

© 2015, Zembrzycki et al.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

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  1. Andreas Zembrzycki
  2. Adam M Stocker
  3. Axel Leingärtner
  4. Setsuko Sahara
  5. Shen-Ju Chou
  6. Valery Kalatsky
  7. Scott R May
  8. Michael P Stryker
  9. Dennis DM O'Leary
(2015)
Genetic mechanisms control the linear scaling between related cortical primary and higher order sensory areas
eLife 4:e11416.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11416

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