Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) immediate early 1 (IE1) protein associates with condensed chromatin of the host cell during mitosis. We have determined the structure of the chromatin-tethering domain (CTD) of IE1 bound to the nucleosome core particle, and discovered that IE1-CTD specifically interacts with the H2A-H2B acidic patch and impairs the compaction of higher-order chromatin structure. Our results suggest that IE1 loosens up the folding of host chromatin during hCMV infections.
- Patrick Cramer, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Germany
© 2016, Fang et al.
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Legionella pneumophila causes a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires’ disease. During the infection, Legionella injects more than 300 effector proteins into host cells. Among them are enzymes involved in altering the host-ubiquitination system. Here, we identified two LegionellaOTU (ovarian tumor)-like deubiquitinases (LOT-DUBs; LotB [Lpg1621/Ceg23] and LotC [Lpg2529]). The crystal structure of the LotC catalytic core (LotC14-310) was determined at 2.4 Å. Unlike the classical OTU-family, the LOT-family shows an extended helical lobe between the Cys-loop and the variable loop, which defines them as a unique class of OTU-DUBs. LotB has an additional ubiquitin-binding site (S1’), which enables the specific cleavage of Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains. By contrast, LotC only contains the S1 site and cleaves different species of ubiquitin chains. MS analysis of LotB and LotC identified different categories of host-interacting proteins and substrates. Together, our results provide new structural insights into bacterial OTU-DUBs and indicate distinct roles in host–pathogen interactions.