(A) Analysis of a purified E. coli 70S ribosome revealed the locations of highly dynamic periphery ribosomal proteins S1, L1, and L7/12 that were refractory to crystallography and cryo-EM analysis. Cross-links to S1, L1, and L7/12 are colored red, blue, and yellow, respectively, and the cross-linked residues on these three proteins are numbered according to the Uniprot sequences. (B) Analysis of a crude immunoprecipitate of the yeast exosome complex. Dashed blue and grey lines denote 50 compatible and 22 incompatible cross-links, respectively, according to the structure of the RNA-bound 11-subunit exosome complex (PDB code: 4IFD). Rrp44, green; Rrp40, orange; Rrp4, violet; Rrp42, gold; other exosome subunits, yellow; RNA, black. Known and candidate exosome regulators revealed by Leiker-cross-links are shown along the periphery and highlighted in green and yellow circles, respectively. (C) Connectivity maps of the ten-subunit exosome core complex based on the inter-molecular cross-links identified in the current IP-CXMS experiments or on previous yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) studies (Stark et al., 2006; Uetz et al., 2000; Oliveira et al., 2002; Luz et al., 2007; Yu et al., 2008). Blue solid lines: experimentally identified putative direct protein-protein interactions; grey dashed lines: theoretical cross-links according to the crystal structure; Cα-Cα distance cutoff ≤30 Å.