Change in the identity of the components of the transcription pre-initiation complex is proposed to control cell type-specific gene expression. Replacement of the canonical TFIID-TBP complex with TRF3/TBP2 was reported to be required for activation of muscle-gene expression. The lack of a developmental phenotype in TBP2 null mice prompted further analysis to determine whether TBP2 deficiency can compromise adult myogenesis. We show here that TBP2 null mice have an intact regeneration potential upon injury and that TBP2 is not expressed in established C2C12 muscle cell or in primary mouse MuSCs. While TFIID subunits and TBP are downregulated during myoblast differentiation, reduced amounts of these proteins form a complex that is detectable on promoters of muscle genes and is essential for their expression. This evidence demonstrates that TBP2 does not replace TBP during muscle differentiation, as previously proposed, with limiting amounts of TFIID-TBP being required to promote muscle-specific gene expression.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#13-007) of the Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute. Every effort was made to minimize suffering.
- Alan G Hinnebusch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, United States
© 2016, Malecova et al.
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The nucleoporin (NUP) ELYS, encoded by AHCTF1, is a large multifunctional protein with essential roles in nuclear pore assembly and mitosis. Using both larval and adult zebrafish models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in which the expression of an inducible mutant kras transgene (krasG12V) drives hepatocyte-specific hyperplasia and liver enlargement, we show that reducing ahctf1 gene dosage by 50% markedly decreases liver volume, while non-hyperplastic tissues are unaffected. We demonstrate that in the context of cancer, ahctf1 heterozygosity impairs nuclear pore formation, mitotic spindle assembly, and chromosome segregation, leading to DNA damage and activation of a Tp53-dependent transcriptional programme that induces cell death and cell cycle arrest. Heterozygous expression of both ahctf1 and ranbp2 (encoding a second nucleoporin), or treatment of heterozygous ahctf1 larvae with the nucleocytoplasmic transport inhibitor, Selinexor, completely blocks krasG12V-driven hepatocyte hyperplasia. Gene expression analysis of patient samples in the liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) dataset in The Cancer Genome Atlas shows that high expression of one or more of the transcripts encoding the 10 components of the NUP107–160 subcomplex, which includes AHCTF1, is positively correlated with worse overall survival. These results provide a strong and feasible rationale for the development of novel cancer therapeutics that target ELYS function and suggest potential avenues for effective combinatorial treatments.
The interplay among different cells in a tissue is essential for maintaining homeostasis. Although disease states have been traditionally attributed to individual cell types, increasing evidence and new therapeutic options have demonstrated the primary role of multicellular functions to understand health and disease, opening new avenues to understand pathogenesis and develop new treatment strategies. We recently described the cellular composition and dynamics of the human oral mucosa; however, the spatial arrangement of cells is needed to better understand a morphologically complex tissue. Here, we link single-cell RNA sequencing, spatial transcriptomics, and high-resolution multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridisation to characterise human oral mucosa in health and oral chronic inflammatory disease. We deconvolved expression for resolution enhancement of spatial transcriptomic data and defined highly specialised epithelial and stromal compartments describing location-specific immune programs. Furthermore, we spatially mapped a rare pathogenic fibroblast population localised in a highly immunogenic region, responsible for lymphocyte recruitment through CXCL8 and CXCL10 and with a possible role in pathological angiogenesis through ALOX5AP. Collectively, our study provides a comprehensive reference for the study of oral chronic disease pathogenesis.