1. Neuroscience
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Multimodal sensory integration in single cerebellar granule cells in vivo

  1. Taro Ishikawa
  2. Misa Shimuta
  3. Michael Häusser  Is a corresponding author
  1. University College London, United Kingdom
Research Advance
  • Cited 57
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Cite this article as: eLife 2015;4:e12916 doi: 10.7554/eLife.12916


The mammalian cerebellum is a highly multimodal structure, receiving inputs from multiple sensory modalities and integrating them during complex sensorimotor coordination tasks. Previously, using cell-type-specific anatomical projection mapping, it was shown that multimodal pathways converge onto individual cerebellar granule cells (Huang et al., 2013). Here we directly measure synaptic currents using in vivo patch-clamp recordings and confirm that a subset of single granule cells receive convergent functional multimodal (somatosensory, auditory, and visual) inputs via separate mossy fibers. Furthermore, we show that the integration of multimodal signals by granule cells can enhance action potential output. These recordings directly demonstrate functional convergence of multimodal signals onto single granule cells.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Taro Ishikawa

    Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  2. Misa Shimuta

    Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  3. Michael Häusser

    Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    For correspondence
    Competing interests
    Michael Häusser, Reviewing editor, eLife.


Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with UK Home Office regulations and under approval and supervision of the Animal Experiment Committee of Jikei University. Experiments were carried out under Project Licence 70/7833 issued by the Home Office, which was issued following local ethical review, and under the relevant Personal Licences issued by the Home Office. All surgery was performed under isoflurane anesthesia, and every effort was made to minimize suffering.

Reviewing Editor

  1. Eve Marder, Brandeis University, United States

Publication history

  1. Received: November 9, 2015
  2. Accepted: December 21, 2015
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: December 29, 2015 (version 1)
  4. Version of Record published: March 7, 2016 (version 2)


© 2015, Ishikawa et al.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.


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