(A) Scatter plots of locomotion modulation index (LMI) of individual neurons in darkness versus during visual stimulation (oriented gratings), with associated Pearson correlation coefficient (R-values) for excitatory (Exc; n = 331), VIP (n = 57), SST (n = 74), and PV (n = 109) neurons. Context-dependent (red) and context-independent (blue) locomotion responsive neurons are highlighted. Context dependency per neuron was defined by its distance from the identity line and its variability to locomotion periods (see Materials and methods). Neurons that were either non-responsive to locomotion or responded unreliably are shown as open circles. (B) Mean of the median LMI per animal and s.e.m. for layer 2/3 (L2/3) as well as layer 4 (L4), in darkness (Dark, black bars) and during visual stimulation (Stim, coloed bars) for Exc (L2/3, n = 12; L4, n = 6), VIP (L2/3, n = 12; L4, n = 4), SST (L2/3, n = 11; L4, n = 6), and PV (L2/3, n =13; L4, n =6) mice. Within each cell type, there was no significant difference (n.s., p>0.05, Mann-Whitney U test) between the median LMI across layers in either context (darkness: Exc, p=0.151; VIP, p=0.521; SST, p=0.350; PV, p=0.966; visual stimulation: Exc, p=0.750; VIP, p=0.133; SST, p=0.961; PV, p=0.058; (C) Histograms of the difference between the LMI value in darkness and during visual stimulation (LMIStim-LMIDark) for each cell type. Negative values indicate increased responses to locomotion in the dark compared with visual stimulation, positive numbers indicate increased responses to locomotion during visual stimulation, and numbers close to 0 (within red lines; –0.2 < LMIStim-LMIDark < 0.2) indicate context-independent responses.