(A) Sensory input in the form of a bebop-style saxophone improvisation (courtesy of Jakob Obleser). (B) Schematic representation of the three predictive-coding parameters modeled by Sedley et al.: prediction (green), the precision of a prediction (grey), and surprise (orange). (C) Graph showing the strength of neural oscillations (y-axis) as a function of frequency (x-axis) in a region of the auditory cortex called Heschl’s Gyrus. Beta oscillations (green band) code for predictions; alpha oscillations (grey) code for the precision of these predictions; and gamma oscillations (orange) code for surprise. (D) The neural oscillations were recorded by placing electrocorticographical depth electrode contacts at different positions (white circles) along Heschl’s Gyrus.