Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H+-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms.
- Jiří Friml
- Matyáš Fendrych
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Gary Stacey, University of Missouri, United States
© 2016, Fendrych et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Single-cell technologies (RNA-sequencing, flow cytometry) are critical tools to reveal how cell heterogeneity impacts developmental pathways. The placenta is a fetal exchange organ, containing a heterogeneous mix of mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, perivascular, and progenitor cells). Placental mesenchymal stromal cells (pMSC) are also routinely isolated, for therapeutic and research purposes. However, our understanding of the diverse phenotypes of placental mesenchymal lineages, and their relationships remain unclear. We designed a 23-colour flow cytometry panel to assess mesenchymal heterogeneity in first-trimester human placentae. Four distinct mesenchymal subsets were identified; CD73+CD90+ mesenchymal cells, CD146+CD271+ perivascular cells, podoplanin+CD36+ stromal cells, and CD26+CD90+ myofibroblasts. CD73+CD90+ and podoplanin + CD36+ cells expressed markers consistent with cultured pMSCs, and were explored further. Despite their distinct ex-vivo phenotype, in culture CD73+CD90+ cells and podoplanin+CD36+ cells underwent phenotypic convergence, losing CD271 or CD36 expression respectively, and homogenously exhibiting a basic MSC phenotype (CD73+CD90+CD31-CD144-CD45-). However, some markers (CD26, CD146) were not impacted, or differentially impacted by culture in different populations. Comparisons of cultured phenotypes to pMSCs further suggested cultured pMSCs originate from podoplanin+CD36+ cells. This highlights the importance of detailed cell phenotyping to optimise therapeutic capacity, and ensure use of relevant cells in functional assays.
Circadian clocks are important for an individual’s fitness, and recent studies have underlined their role in the outcome of biological interactions. However, the relevance of circadian clocks in fungal-fungal interactions remains largely unexplored. We sought to characterize a functional clock in the biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride to assess its importance in the mycoparasitic interaction against the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea. By utilizing luciferase reporters to monitor the T. atroviride core-clock, we confirmed the existence of circadian oscillations of ~26h that are temperature-compensated and modulated by environmental cues such as light and temperature. Notably, the presence of such rhythms appears to be highly dependent on the nutritional composition of the media. Heterologous expression of the T. atroviride negative clock component (tafrq) in a clock null (Δfrq) strain of Neurospora crassa restored core clock function in the latter fungus, with the same period observed in T. atroviride, confirming the role of tafrq as a bona fide core-clock component. Confrontation assays between wild-type and clock mutant strains of T. atroviride and B. cinerea, in constant light or darkness, revealed an inhibitory effect of light on T. atroviride's mycoparasitic capabilities. Interestingly, when confrontation assays were performed under light/dark cycles, T. atroviride's overgrowth capacity was enhanced when inoculations were at dawn compared to dusk. Deleting the core-clock negative element FRQ in B. cinerea, but not in T. atroviride, was vital for the daily differential phenotype, suggesting that the B. cinerea clock has a more significant influence on the result of this interaction. Additionally, we observed that T. atroviride clock components modulate development and secondary metabolism in this fungus, affecting the production of several molecules, including volatile compounds, such as 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6-PP). Notably, we detected the rhythmic production of distinct T. atroviride volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which depended on its circadian clock. Thus, this study provides evidence on how clock components impact diverse aspects of T. atroviride lifestyle and how daily changes modulate fungal interactions and dynamics.