LAMP1 and LAMP2 proteins are highly abundant, ubiquitous, mammalian proteins that line the lysosome limiting membrane, and protect it from lysosomal hydrolase action. LAMP2 deficiency causes Danon's disease, an X-linked hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. LAMP2 is needed for chaperone-mediated autophagy, and its expression improves tissue function in models of aging. We show here that LAMP1 and LAMP2 bind cholesterol in a manner that buries the cholesterol 3β-hydroxyl group; they also bind tightly to NPC1 and NPC2 proteins that export cholesterol from lysosomes. Quantitation of cellular LAMP2 and NPC1 protein levels suggest that LAMP proteins represent a significant cholesterol binding site at the lysosome limiting membrane, and may signal cholesterol availability. Functional rescue experiments show that the ability of LAMP2 to facilitate cholesterol export from lysosomes relies on its ability to bind cholesterol directly.
- Jian Li
- Suzanne R Pfeffer
- Suzanne R Pfeffer
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Chris G Burd, Yale University, United States
© 2016, Li & Pfeffer
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Signaling molecules derived from attachment of diverse metabolic building blocks to ascarosides play a central role in the life history of C. elegans and other nematodes; however, many aspects of their biogenesis remain unclear. Using comparative metabolomics, we show that a pathway mediating formation of intestinal lysosome-related organelles (LROs) is required for biosynthesis of most modular ascarosides as well as previously undescribed modular glucosides. Similar to modular ascarosides, the modular glucosides are derived from highly selective assembly of moieties from nucleoside, amino acid, neurotransmitter, and lipid metabolism, suggesting that modular glucosides, like the ascarosides, may serve signaling functions. We further show that carboxylesterases that localize to intestinal organelles are required for the assembly of both modular ascarosides and glucosides via ester and amide linkages. Further exploration of LRO function and carboxylesterase homologs in C. elegans and other animals may reveal additional new compound families and signaling paradigms.
Cellular aging is a multifactorial process that is characterized by a decline in homeostatic capacity, best described at the molecular level. Physicochemical properties such as pH and macromolecular crowding are essential to all molecular processes in cells and require maintenance. Whether a drift in physicochemical properties contributes to the overall decline of homeostasis in aging is not known. Here, we show that the cytosol of yeast cells acidifies modestly in early aging and sharply after senescence. Using a macromolecular crowding sensor optimized for long-term FRET measurements, we show that crowding is rather stable and that the stability of crowding is a stronger predictor for lifespan than the absolute crowding levels. Additionally, in aged cells, we observe drastic changes in organellar volume, leading to crowding on the micrometer scale, which we term organellar crowding. Our measurements provide an initial framework of physicochemical parameters of replicatively aged yeast cells.