Previously we reported that Src-associated-substrate-during-mitosis-of-68kDa (Sam68/KHDRBS1) is pivotal for DNA damage-stimulated NF-κB transactivation of anti-apoptotic genes (Fu et al., 2016). Here we show that Sam68 is critical for genotoxic stress-induced NF-κB activation in the γ-irradiated colon and animal and that Sam68-dependent NF-κB activation provides radioprotection to colon epithelium in vivo. Sam68 deletion diminishes γ-irradiation-triggered PAR synthesis and NF-κB activation in colon epithelial cells (CECs), thus hampering the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules in situ and facilitating CECs to undergo apoptosis in mice post whole-body γ-irradiation (WBIR). Sam68 knockout mice suffer more severe damage in the colon and succumb more rapidly from acute radiotoxicity than the control mice following WBIR. Our results underscore the critical role of Sam68 in orchestrating genotoxic stress-initiated NF-κB activation signaling in the colon tissue and whole animal and reveal the pathophysiological relevance of Sam68-dependent NF-κB activation in colonic cell survival and recovery from extrinsic DNA damage.
- Fengyi Wan
- Fengyi Wan
- Eric M Wier
- Ryan P Hobbs
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal experiments were performed according to protocol number MO16-H285, approved by the Johns Hopkins University's Animal Care and Use Committee and in direct accordance with the NIH guidelines for housing and care of laboratory animals. Khdrbs1-/- mice and their gender-matched littermate Khdrbs1+/- mice were produced using heterozygous breeding pairs. Mice were maintained in a specific pathogen-free facility and fed autoclaved food and water ad libitum.
- Tony Hunter, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, United States
© 2016, Fu et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
DBC1 has been characterized as a key regulator of physiological and pathophysiological activities, such as DNA damage, senescence, and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism by which the functional stability of DBC1 is regulated has yet to be elucidated. Here, we report that the ubiquitination-mediated degradation of DBC1 is regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SIAH2 and deubiquitinase OTUD5 under hypoxic stress. Mechanistically, hypoxia promoted DBC1 to interact with SIAH2 but not OTUD5, resulting in the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of DBC1 through the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. SIAH2 knockout inhibited tumor cell proliferation and migration, which could be rescued by double knockout of SIAH2/CCAR2. Human tissue microarray analysis further revealed that the SIAH2/DBC1 axis was responsible for tumor progression under hypoxic stress. These findings define a key role of the hypoxia-mediated SIAH2-DBC1 pathway in the progression of human breast cancer and provide novel insights into the metastatic mechanism of breast cancer.
Sequencing of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is currently being used to detect cancer by searching both for mutational and non-mutational alterations. Recent work has shown that the length distribution of cfDNA fragments from a cancer patient can inform tumor load and type. Here, we propose non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) of fragment length distributions as a novel and completely unsupervised method for studying fragment length patterns in cfDNA. Using shallow whole-genome sequencing (sWGS) of cfDNA from a cohort of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), we demonstrate how NMF accurately infers the true tumor fragment length distribution as an NMF component - and that the sample weights of this component correlate with ctDNA levels (r=0.75). We further demonstrate how using several NMF components enables accurate cancer detection on data from various early stage cancers (AUC = 0.96). Finally, we show that NMF, when applied across genomic regions, can be used to discover fragment length signatures associated with open chromatin.