The gradient of Decapentaplegic (Dpp) in the Drosophila wing has served as a paradigm to characterize the role of morphogens in regulating patterning. However, the role of this gradient in regulating tissue size is a topic of intense debate as proliferative growth is homogenous. Here we combined the Gal4/UAS system and a temperature-sensitive Gal80 molecule to induce RNAi-mediated depletion of dpp and characterise the spatial and temporal requirement of Dpp in promoting growth. We show that Dpp emanating from the AP compartment boundary is required throughout development to promote growth by regulating cell proliferation and tissue size. Dpp regulates growth and proliferation rates equally in central and lateral regions of the developing wing appendage and reduced levels of Dpp affects similarly the width and length of the resulting wing. We also present evidence supporting the proposal that graded activity of Dpp is not an absolute requirement for wing growth.
- Marco Milan
- Marco Milan
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Utpal Banerjee, University of California, Los Angeles, United States
© 2017, Barrio & Milan
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The Dpp morphogen gradient derived from the anterior stripe of cells is thought to control growth and patterning of the Drosophila wing disc. However, the spatial-temporal requirement of dpp for growth and patterning remained largely unknown. Recently, two studies re-addressed this question. By generating a conditional null allele, one study proposed that the dpp stripe is critical for patterning but not for growth (Akiyama and Gibson, 2015). In contrast, using a membrane-anchored nanobody to trap Dpp, the other study proposed that Dpp dispersal from the stripe is required for patterning and also for medial wing disc growth, at least in the posterior compartment (Harmansa et al., 2015). Thus, growth control by the Dpp morphogen gradient remains under debate. Here, by removing dpp from the stripe at different time points, we show that the dpp stripe source is indeed required for wing disc growth, also during third instar larval stages.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) has resulted in the birth of over 8 million children. Although most IVF-conceived children are healthy, several studies suggest an increased risk of altered growth rate, cardiovascular dysfunction, and glucose intolerance in this population compared to naturally conceived children. However, a clear understanding of how embryonic metabolism is affected by culture condition and how embryos reprogram their metabolism is unknown. Here, we studied oxidative stress and metabolic alteration in blastocysts conceived by natural mating or by IVF and cultured in physiologic (5%) or atmospheric (20%) oxygen. We found that IVF-generated blastocysts manifest increased reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage to DNA/lipid/proteins, and reduction in glutathione. Metabolic analysis revealed IVF-generated blastocysts display decreased mitochondria respiration and increased glycolytic activity suggestive of enhanced Warburg metabolism. These findings were corroborated by altered intracellular and extracellular pH and increased intracellular lactate levels in IVF-generated embryos. Comprehensive proteomic analysis and targeted immunofluorescence showed reduction of lactate dehydrogenase-B and monocarboxylate transporter 1, enzymes involved in lactate metabolism. Importantly, these enzymes remained downregulated in the tissues of adult IVF-conceived mice, suggesting that metabolic alterations in IVF-generated embryos may result in alteration in lactate metabolism. These findings suggest that alterations in lactate metabolism are a likely mechanism involved in genomic reprogramming and could be involved in the developmental origin of health and disease.