Nucleosome assembly in the wake of DNA replication is a key process that regulates cell identity and survival. Chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) is a H3-H4 histone chaperone that associates with the replisome and orchestrates chromatin assembly following DNA synthesis. Little is known about the mechanism and structure of this key complex. Here we investigate the CAF-1•H3-H4 binding mode and the mechanism of nucleosome assembly. We show that CAF-1 binding to a H3-H4 dimer activates the Cac1 winged helix domain interaction with DNA. This drives the formation of a transient CAF-1•histone•DNA intermediate containing two CAF-1 complexes, each associated with one H3-H4 dimer. Here, the (H3-H4)2 tetramer is formed and deposited onto DNA. Our work elucidates the molecular mechanism for histone deposition by CAF-1, a reaction that has remained elusive for other histone chaperones, and it advances our understanding of how nucleosomes and their epigenetic information are maintained through DNA replication.
- Karolin Luger
- Karolin Luger
- Francesca Mattiroli
- Francesca Mattiroli
- Laurie A Stargell
- Natalie G Ahn
- Iestyn Whitehouse
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Paul D. Kaufman, U. Massachusetts Medical School, United States
© 2017, Mattiroli et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Regulation of translation is a fundamental facet of the cellular response to rapidly changing external conditions. Specific RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) co-ordinate the translational regulation of distinct mRNA cohorts during stress. To identify RBPs with previously under-appreciated roles in translational control, we used polysome profiling and mass spectrometry to identify and quantify proteins associated with translating ribosomes in unstressed yeast cells and during oxidative stress and amino acid starvation, which both induce the integrated stress response (ISR). Over 800 proteins were identified across polysome gradient fractions, including ribosomal proteins, translation factors and many others without previously described translation-related roles, including numerous metabolic enzymes. We identified variations in patterns of polysome enrichment in both unstressed and stressed cells and identified proteins enriched in heavy polysomes during stress. Genetic screening of polysome-enriched RBPs identified the cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase, Aat2, as a ribosome-associated protein whose deletion conferred growth sensitivity to oxidative stress. Loss of Aat2 caused aberrantly high activation of the ISR via enhanced eIF2a phosphorylation and GCN4 activation. Importantly, non-catalytic AAT2 mutants retained polysome association and did not show heightened stress sensitivity. Aat2 therefore has a separate ribosome-associated translational regulatory or 'moonlighting' function that modulates the ISR independent of its aspartate aminotransferase activity.
In eukaryotic cells, stressors reprogram the cellular proteome by activating the integrated stress response (ISR). In its canonical form, stress-sensing kinases phosphorylate the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2 (eIF2-P), which ultimately leads to reduced levels of ternary complex required for initiation of mRNA translation. Previously we showed that translational control is primarily exerted through a conformational switch in eIF2’s nucleotide exchange factor, eIF2B, which shifts from its active A-State conformation to its inhibited I-State conformation upon eIF2-P binding, resulting in reduced nucleotide exchange on eIF2 (Schoof et al. 2021). Here, we show functionally and structurally how a single histidine to aspartate point mutation in eIF2B’s β subunit (H160D) mimics the effects of eIF2-P binding by promoting an I-State like conformation, resulting in eIF2-P independent activation of the ISR. These findings corroborate our previously proposed A/I-State model of allosteric ISR regulation.