Hormones and neurotransmitters are released through fluctuating exocytotic fusion pores that can flicker open and shut multiple times. Cargo release and vesicle recycling depend on the fate of the pore, which may reseal or dilate irreversibly. Pore nucleation requires zippering between vesicle-associated v- and target membrane t-SNAREs, but the mechanisms governing the subsequent pore dilation are not understood. Here, we probed dilation of single fusion pores using v-SNARE-reconstituted ~23 nm diameter discoidal nanolipoprotein particles (vNLPs) as fusion partners with cells ectopically expressing cognate, 'flipped' t-SNAREs. Pore nucleation required a minimum of 2, and reached a maximum above ~4 copies per face, but the probability of pore dilation was far from saturating at 15 copies, the NLP capacity. Our experimental and computational results suggest SNARE availability may be pivotal in determining whether neurotransmitters or hormones are released through a transient (kiss & run) or an irreversibly dilating pore (full fusion).
- Erdem Karatekin
- Erdem Karatekin
- Wensi Vennekate
- Shyam S Krishnakumar
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Axel T Brunger, Stanford University Medical Center, United States
© 2017, Wu et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Structures of the human lysosomal K+ channel transmembrane protein 175 (TMEM175) in open and closed states revealed a novel architecture lacking the canonical K+ selectivity filter motif present in previously known K+ channel structures. A hydrophobic constriction composed of four isoleucine residues was resolved in the pore and proposed to serve as the gate in the closed state, and to confer ion selectivity in the open state. Here, we achieve higher-resolution structures of the open and closed states and employ molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the conducting properties of the putative open state, demonstrating that it is permeable to K+ and, to a lesser degree, also Na+. Both cations must dehydrate significantly to penetrate the narrow hydrophobic constriction, but ion flow is assisted by a favorable electrostatic field generated by the protein that spans the length of the pore. The balance of these opposing energetic factors explains why permeation is feasible, and why TMEM175 is selective for K+ over Na+, despite the absence of the canonical selectivity filter. Accordingly, mutagenesis experiments reveal an exquisite sensitivity of the channel to perturbations that mitigate the constriction. Together, these data reveal a novel mechanism for selective permeation of ions by TMEM175 that is unlike that of other K+ channels.
Phosphorylation and acetylation of sarcomeric proteins are important for fine-tuning myocardial contractility. Here, we used bottom-up proteomics and label-free quantification to identify novel post-translational modifications (PTMs) on β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) in normal and failing human heart tissues. We report six acetylated lysines and two phosphorylated residues: K34-Ac, K58-Ac, S210-P, K213-Ac, T215-P, K429-Ac, K951-Ac, and K1195-Ac. K951-Ac was significantly reduced in both ischemic and nonischemic failing hearts compared to nondiseased hearts. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that K951-Ac may impact stability of thick filament tail interactions and ultimately myosin head positioning. K58-Ac altered the solvent-exposed SH3 domain surface – known for protein–protein interactions – but did not appreciably change motor domain conformation or dynamics under conditions studied. Together, K213-Ac/T215-P altered loop 1’s structure and dynamics – known to regulate ADP-release, ATPase activity, and sliding velocity. Our study suggests that β-MHC acetylation levels may be influenced more by the PTM location than the type of heart disease since less protected acetylation sites are reduced in both heart failure groups. Additionally, these PTMs have potential to modulate interactions between β-MHC and other regulatory sarcomeric proteins, ADP-release rate of myosin, flexibility of the S2 region, and cardiac myofilament contractility in normal and failing hearts.