Cytoplasmic microtubules (cMT) control mitotic spindle positioning in many organisms, and are therefore pivotal for successful cell division. Despite its importance, the temporal control of cMT formation remains poorly understood. Here we show that unlike the best-studied yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, position of pre-anaphase nucleus is not strongly biased toward bud neck in Ogataea polymorpha and the regulation of spindle positioning becomes active only shortly before anaphase. This is likely due to the unstable property of cMTs compared to those in S. cerevisiae. Furthermore, we show that cMT nucleation/anchoring is restricted at the level of recruitment of the γ-tubulin complex receptor, Spc72, to spindle pole body (SPB), which is regulated by the polo-like kinase Cdc5. Additionally, electron microscopy revealed that the cytoplasmic side of SPB is structurally different between G1 and anaphase. Thus, polo-like kinase dependent recruitment of γ-tubulin receptor to SPBs determines the timing of spindle orientation in O. polymorpha.
Ogataea polymorpha NCYC 495 leu1.1 v2.0The U.S. Department of Energy is committed to making its electronic and information technologies accessible to individuals with disabilities in accordance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (29 U.S.C. 794d), as amended in 1998.
Opolymorpha_4329Publicly available at the DNA Data Bank of Japan (accession no. DF933569-DF933585).
- Yoshinobu Kaneko
- Hiromi Maekawa
- Gislene Pereira
- Gislene Pereira
- Gislene Pereira
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Anna Akhmanova, Utrecht University, Netherlands
© 2017, Maekawa et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
In the adult Drosophila midgut, basal intestinal stem cells give rise to enteroblasts that integrate into the epithelium as they differentiate into enterocytes. Integrating enteroblasts must generate a new apical domain and break through the septate junctions between neighbouring enterocytes, while maintaining barrier function. We observe that enteroblasts form an apical membrane initiation site (AMIS) when they reach the septate junction between the enterocytes. Cadherin clears from the apical surface and an apical space appears between above the enteroblast. New septate junctions then form laterally with the enterocytes and the AMIS develops into an apical domain below the enterocyte septate junction. The enteroblast therefore forms a pre-assembled apical compartment before it has a free apical surface in contact with the gut lumen. Finally, the enterocyte septate junction disassembles and the enteroblast/pre-enterocyte reaches the gut lumen with a fully-formed brush border. The process of enteroblast integration resembles lumen formation in mammalian epithelial cysts, highlighting the similarities between the fly midgut and mammalian epithelia.
Major genomic deletions in independent eukaryotic lineages have led to repeated ancestral loss of biosynthesis pathways for nine of the twenty canonical amino acids1. While the evolutionary forces driving these polyphyletic deletion events are not well understood, the consequence is that extant metazoans are unable to produce nine essential amino acids (EAAs). Previous studies have highlighted that EAA biosynthesis tends to be more energetically costly2,3, raising the possibility that these pathways were lost from organisms with access to abundant EAAs in the environment4,5. It is unclear whether present-day metazoans can reaccept these pathways to resurrect biosynthetic capabilities that were lost long ago or whether evolution has rendered EAA pathways incompatible with metazoan metabolism. Here, we report progress on a large-scale synthetic genomics effort to reestablish EAA biosynthetic functionality in mammalian cells. We designed codon-optimized biosynthesis pathways based on genes mined from Escherichia coli. These pathways were de novo synthesized in 3 kilobase chunks, assembled in yeasto and genomically integrated into a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line. One synthetic pathway produced valine at a sufficient level for cell viability and proliferation, and thus represents a successful example of metazoan EAA biosynthesis restoration. This prototrophic CHO line grows in valine-free medium, and metabolomics using labeled precursors verified de novo biosynthesis of valine. RNA-seq profiling of the valine prototrophic CHO line showed that the synthetic pathway minimally disrupted the cellular transcriptome. Furthermore, valine prototrophic cells exhibited transcriptional signatures associated with rescue from nutritional starvation. 13C-tracing revealed build-up of pathway intermediate 2,3-dihydroxy-3-isovalerate in these cells. Increasing the dosage of downstream ilvD boosted pathway performance and allowed for long-term propagation of second-generation cells in valine-free medium at a consistent doubling time of 3.2 days. This work demonstrates that mammalian metabolism is amenable to restoration of ancient core pathways, paving a path for genome-scale efforts to synthetically restore metabolic functions to the metazoan lineage.