The blood-brain barrier is essential for the proper homeostasis and function of the CNS, but its mechanism of function is poorly understood. Perivascular cells surrounding brain blood vessels are thought to be important for blood-brain barrier establishment, but their roles are not well defined. Here, we describe a novel perivascular cell population closely associated with blood vessels on the zebrafish brain. Based on similarities in their morphology, location, and scavenger behavior, these cells appear to be the zebrafish equivalent of cells variably characterized as Fluorescent Granular Perithelial cells (FGPs), perivascular macrophages, or 'Mato Cells' in mammals. Despite their macrophage-like morphology and perivascular location, zebrafish FGPs appear molecularly most similar to lymphatic endothelium, and our imaging studies suggest that these cells emerge by transdifferentiation from endothelium of the optic choroidal vascular plexus. Our findings provide the first report of a perivascular cell population in the brain derived from vascular endothelium.
- Marina Venero Galanternik
- Daniel Castranova
- Aniket V Gore
- Hyun Min Jung
- Amber N Stratman
- Mayumi F Miller
- Brant M Weinstein
- Martha R Kirby
- Koichi Kawakami
- Koichi Kawakami
- Nathan H Blewett
- James Iben
- Richard J Maraia
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (ASP # 12-039 and 15-017).
- Didier YR Stainier, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, Germany
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
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Mammalian Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays key roles in embryogenesis and uniquely requires primary cilia. Functional analyses of several ciliogenesis-related genes led to the discovery of the developmental diseases known as ciliopathies. Hence, identification of mammalian factors that regulate ciliogenesis can provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of embryogenesis and ciliopathy. Here, we demonstrate that DYRK2 acts as a novel mammalian ciliogenesis-related protein kinase. Loss of Dyrk2 in mice causes suppression of Hh signaling and results in skeletal abnormalities during in vivo embryogenesis. Deletion of Dyrk2 induces abnormal ciliary morphology and trafficking of Hh pathway components. Mechanistically, transcriptome analyses demonstrate down-regulation of Aurka and other disassembly genes following Dyrk2 deletion. Taken together, the present study demonstrates for the first time that DYRK2 controls ciliogenesis and is necessary for Hh signaling during mammalian development.
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